In Robert Conroy's 2011 book Rising Sun, Yamamoto directs the IJN to launch a series of attacks on the American West Coast, in the hope the United States can be convinced to sue for peace and securing Japan's place as a world power; but cannot escape his lingering fear the war will ultimately doom Japan. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. pilots George Welch and Kenneth Taylor managed to get airborne under fire—twice—and shot down at least six Japanese planes between them. I believe this … But he was not optimistic. [3] He committed suicide during the Battle of Saipan. by Mark LoProto | Sep 5, 2017 | History, U.S. As Confucius said, "They may crush cinnabar, yet they do not take away its color; one may burn a fragrant herb, yet it will not destroy the scent." From 1925 to 1926, Nagumo accompanied a Japanese mission to study naval warfare strategy, tactics, and equipment in Europe and the United States. When asked by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe in mid-1941 about the outcome of a possible war with the United States, Yamamoto made a well-known and prophetic statement: If ordered to fight, he said, "I shall run wild considerably for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second and third years. His speech that day, which summoned a … It was Yamamoto who planned and executed the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. He landed at Pearl Harbor on Christmas Eve, 1941. is likely due to confusion with retired Admiral Shinjiro Stefano Yamamoto, who was a decade older than Isoroku, and died of natural causes in 1942.[38]. [3][4], Yamamoto was born Isoroku Takano (高野 五十六, Takano Isoroku) in Nagaoka, Niigata. Along with the occupation of the Dutch East Indies came the fall of Singapore on February 15, and the eventual reduction of the remaining American-Filipino defensive positions in the Philippines on the Bataan peninsula on April 9 and Corregidor Island on May 6. He did not have any idea of the capability and potential of naval aviation." Isoroku Yamamoto (April 4, 1884–April 18, 1943) was the commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet during World War II. A fictionalized version of Yamamoto's death was portrayed in the Baa Baa Black Sheep episode "The Hawk Flies on Sunday", though only photos of Yamamoto were shown. Two things inspired Yamamoto’s Pearl Harbor idea: a prophetic book and a historic attack. Located in Honolulu, Hawai‘i Pearl Harbor Warbirds provides a personal historical experience making it one of the best O‘ahu attractions. This quote was spread by the militarists, minus the last sentence, where it was interpreted in America as a boast that Japan would conquer the entire continental United States. He committed suicide during the Battle of Saipan. Chūichi Nagumo[a] (25 March 1887 – 6 July 1944) was a Japanese admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during World War II. Following the battle, Nagumo appeared to have lost his aggressiveness and effectiveness. With Tojo now in charge of Japan's highest political office, it became clear the Army would lead the Navy into a war about which Yamamoto had serious reservations. Deep Blue Fleet), instead of dying in the plane crash, Yamamoto blacks out and suddenly wakes up as his younger self, Isoroku Takano, after the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. The Battle of Midway checked Japanese momentum, but the Japanese Navy was still a powerful force, capable of regaining the initiative. Sarah Pruitt When Japanese bombers appeared in the skies over Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, the U.S. military was completely … Nagumo's grave is located at the Ōbai-in sub-temple of Engaku-ji in Kanagawa, next to the grave of his son, Susumu Nagumo, who was killed in battle aboard the destroyer Kishinami on 2 December 1944. In the Axis of Time trilogy by author John Birmingham, after a naval task force from the year 2021 is accidentally transported back through time to 1942, Yamamoto assumes a leadership role in the dramatic alteration of Japan's war strategy. As a leading officer of the militaristic Fleet Faction, he also received a boost in his career from political forces. Stinnett: Yes. He promoted a policy of a strong fleet to project force through gunboat diplomacy, rather than a fleet used primarily for the transport of invasion land forces, as some of his political opponents in the Army wanted. An interesting story about the insight Admiral Nimitz had into the "Mistakes" the Japanese made when they bombed Pearl Harbor. Although Pearl Harbor started the Pacific War, a war that Japan would lose badly, the attack itself was no failure. [8] This stance led him to oppose the invasion of China. Mitsuo Fuchida (淵田 美津雄, Fuchida Mitsuo, 3 December 1902 – 30 May 1976) was a Japanese captain in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and a bomber aviator in the Japanese navy before and during World War II.He is perhaps best known for leading the first wave of air attacks on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The 1960 film The Gallant Hours depicts the battle of wits between Vice-Admiral William Halsey, Jr. and Yamamoto from the start of the Guadalcanal Campaign in August 1942 to Yamamoto's death in April 1943. He then We just missed a ferry and had to wait thirty minutes. This only makes it one of the biggest events in history. He never recovered from the loss of his carriers, and teared up when talking about the defeat to his son in 1944. It was a common practice for samurai families lacking sons to adopt suitable young men in this fashion to carry on the family name, the rank and the income that went with it. Every sensible officer of the navy was well aware of the perennial oil problems. In that last intercept Japan gave the deadline for when it was breaking off relations with the U.S.—the deadline was the exact hour when Pearl Harbor was attacked. He transferred to the Kure Naval District on 21 June 1943. He was unable to do so because his initial dispositions had placed his surface combatants too far from Midway,[26] and because Admiral Raymond Spruance prudently withdrew to the east to further defend Midway Island, believing (based on a mistaken submarine report) the Japanese still intended to invade. On April 18, in the midst of these debates, the Doolittle Raid struck Tokyo and surrounding areas, demonstrating the threat posed by American aircraft carriers, and giving Yamamoto an event he could exploit to get his way, and further debate over military strategy came to a quick end. [36] The claim that Yamamoto was a Catholic[37] In the end, four American battleships were sunk, four were damaged, and eleven other cruisers, destroyers, and auxiliaries were sunk or seriously damaged, 188 American aircraft were destroyed and 159 others damaged, and 2,403 people were killed and 1,178 others wounded. He also fought well in the early 1942 campaigns, obtaining success as a fleet commander at the Bombing of Darwin and at the Indian Ocean raid on the Eastern Fleet, the latter of which sank an aircraft carrier, two cruisers, and two destroyers, and caused Admiral Sir James Somerville to retreat to East Africa. Tora!, this film also features the sleeping giant quote. He fired on the aircraft until it began to spew smoke from its left engine. On December 7, 1941, Japanese forces attacked Pearl Harbor. This was done as one of the last acts of acting Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai, under Baron Hiranuma's short-lived administration. But the motive was the same: payback for a sneak attack on the United States. [according to whom?] Yamamoto was an avid gambler, enjoying Go,[34] shogi, billiards, bridge, mah jong, poker, and other games that tested his wits and sharpened his mind. World War II - World War II - Pearl Harbor and the Japanese expansion, to July 1942: In accordance with Yamamoto’s plan, the aircraft carrier strike force commanded by Admiral Nagumo Chuichi sailed eastward undetected by any U.S. reconnaissance until it had reached a point 275 miles north of Hawaii. But the attack—and the recovery—could not have been possible without the people in charge at the time in both Japan and the United States. It was believed that Yamamoto would be appointed to command the Yokosuka Naval Bas… The aircraft, either attempting a suicide ramming, or out of control due to battle damage or a wounded or killed pilot, narrowly missed crashing into the carrier's bridge, which could have killed Nagumo and his command staff, before it cartwheeled into the sea. But the motive was the same: payback for a sneak attack on the United States. Nagumo was born in the city of Yonezawa, Yamagata Prefecture in northern Japan in 1887. He became a commander in 1924. With the American fleet largely neutralized at Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto's Combined Fleet turned to the task of executing the larger Japanese war plan devised by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy General Staff. ... hop into the cockpit of an SNJ-5C for a one hour flight around O‘ahu that follows some of the flight routes of the Japanese attackers. World War II - World War II - Pearl Harbor and the Japanese expansion, to July 1942: In accordance with Yamamoto’s plan, the aircraft carrier strike force commanded by Admiral Nagumo Chuichi sailed eastward undetected by any U.S. reconnaissance until it had reached a point 275 miles north of Hawaii. Admiral Nimitz flew to Hawaii to assume command of the Pacific Fleet. Yamamoto remained as commander-in-chief, retained at least partly to avoid diminishing the morale of the Combined Fleet. It was no doubt a surprise to the US military stationed there. Nagumo and his Army peer Lieutenant General Yoshitsugu Saito were now on their own to keep control of Saipan. Yamamoto opposed the Japanese invasion of northeast China in 1931, the subsequent full-scale land war with China in 1937, and the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in 1940. Others point to similarly complex Allied operations, such as Operation MB8, that were successful, and note the extent to which the American intelligence coup derailed the operation before it began. Fly in a WWII military aircraft for an authentic VIP experience. Consequently, Yamamoto stayed in his post. Husband Edward Kimmel was a United States Navy four-star admiral who served as the commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Why Japan's Attack on Pearl Harbor Failed (Study This Picture) The loss of the aircraft carriers would have been a major blow. He and his wife, Reiko, had four children: two sons and two daughters. There was such a spirit of despair, dejection and defeat–you would have thought the Japanese had already won the war. He graduated from the 36th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1908, with a ranking of 8 out of a class of 191 cadets. The Japanese plan to attack Pearl Harbor was devised by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, a former student at Harvard University who had served as Japan’s naval attaché in … Tora! Under Yamamoto's able subordinates, Vice Admirals Jisaburō Ozawa, Nobutake Kondō, and Ibō Takahashi, the Japanese swept the inadequate remaining American, British, Dutch and Australian naval assets from the Dutch East Indies in a series of amphibious landings and surface naval battles culminating in the Battle of the Java Sea on February 27, 1942. Nagumo led Japan's main carrier battle group, the Kido Butai, in the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Indian Ocean raid and the Battle of Midway. The seizure of Midway was expected to draw the American carriers west into a trap where the First Mobile Force would engage and destroy them. In the subsequent Pacific War, Japan's technologically advanced navy decisively defeats the United States, and grants all of the former European and American colonies in Asia full independence. Tora! The Japanese military began laying plans to attack Pearl Harbor as early as January 1941. Tora! He frequently made jokes about moving to Monaco and starting his own casino. His memory from the original timeline intact, Yamamoto uses his knowledge of the future to help Japan become a stronger military power, eventually launching a coup d'état against Hideki Tōjō's government. Yamamoto's naval forces won a few victories and inflicted considerable losses and damage to the American fleet in several battles around Guadalcanal which included the Battles of Savo Island, Cape Esperance, and Tassafaronga, but he could never draw the United States into a decisive fleet action. The more violent details of Yamamoto's death were hidden from the Japanese public. In Douglas Niles' 2007 book MacArthur's War: A Novel of the Invasion of Japan (written with Michael Dobson), which focuses on General Douglas MacArthur and an alternate history of the Pacific War (following a considerably different outcome of the Battle of Midway), Yamamoto is portrayed sympathetically, with much of the action in the Japanese government seen through his eyes, though he could not change the major decisions of Japan in World War II. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kichisaburō Nomura (野村 吉三郎, Nomura Kichisaburō, December 16, 1877 – May 8, 1964) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and was the ambassador to the United States at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese had secured their oil- and rubber-rich "southern resources area". To guard against failure, Yamamoto initiated two security measures. Isoroku married Reiko Mihashi in 1918; they had two sons and two daughters. His reaction to the prospect of death by assassination was passive and accepting. Isoroku Yamamoto, perhaps Japan’s greatest strategist and the officer who would contrive the surprise air attack on U.S. naval forces at Pearl Harbor, is born on April 4, 1884. Yamamoto was promoted to admiral on November 15, 1940. ... – an authentic World War … His specialty was torpedo and destroyer tactics. He wrote to an ultranationalist: Should hostilities once break out between Japan and the United States, it would not be enough that we take Guam and the Philippines, nor even Hawaii and San Francisco. That was the plan, after all. [15], Afterwards, Nagumo was reassigned as commander-in-chief of the Third Fleet and commanded aircraft carriers in the Guadalcanal campaign, although there his actions were largely indecisive and slowly frittered away much of Japan's maritime strength. As a midshipman, he served in the protected cruisers Soya and Niitaka and the armored cru… served as an instructor at the IJN Academy from 1927 to 1929. Admiral Nagumo declined a third wave attack on Pearl Harbor for several reasons. Isoroku Yamamoto was the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral and Commander-in-chief who masterminded the attack on Pearl Harbor December 7 th, 1941. In any case, insufficient daylight remained after recovering the aircraft from the first two waves for the carriers to launch and recover a third before dark, and Nagumo's escorting destroyers lacked the fuel capacity to loiter long. However, he had lost face as a result of the Midway defeat, and the Naval General Staff were disinclined to indulge in further gambles. These issues made him a target of assassination threats by pro-war militarists. Without a doubt as the senior commanders in charge, they should have been held accountable for what took place. After the attack, Admiral Kimmel was hard at work planning retaliatory actions to engage the Japanese at sea when he was relieved of hi… In the 2001 film Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto was portrayed by Oscar-nominated Japanese-born American actor Mako Iwamatsu. The most famous Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Quote about the sleeping giant may not even have been said by him. Initially against war, Yamamoto nevertheless planned and participated in many of the most important battles of the war. I wonder if our politicians [who speak so lightly of a Japanese-American war] have confidence as to the final outcome and are prepared to make the necessary sacrifices.[13]. As a rear admiral, Nagumo commanded the 8th Cruiser Division to support Imperial Japanese Army movements in China from the Yellow Sea. Although remembered for his association with aircraft carriers, Yamamoto did more to influence the development of land-based naval aviation, particularly the Mitsubishi G3M and G4M medium bombers. Yamamoto and a few Japanese military leaders and officials waited, hoping that the United States or Great Britain would negotiate an armistice or a peace treaty to end the war. Jan 18, 2015 - Explore john m's board "Japanese Admiral That Led Attack on Pearl Harbor" on Pinterest. The Marines intercepted fighter cover while the army shot down Yamamoto. Isoroku Yamamoto's sleeping giant quotation is a film quote by the Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto regarding the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by forces of Imperial Japan. Chūichi Nagumo (25 March 1887 – 6 July 1944) was a Japanese admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during World War II. However, there is some doubt whether it should be attributed to Yamamoto. He also opposed war against the United States, partly because of his studies at Harvard University (1919–1921)[9] and his two postings as a naval attaché in Washington, D.C.,[10] where he learned to speak fluent English. Imperial Japanese Navy WW2 Admirals. Although Tulagi and Guadalcanal were taken, the Port Moresby invasion fleet was compelled to turn back when Takagi clashed with an American carrier task force in the Battle of the Coral Sea in early May. Yamamoto was promoted to admiral on November 15, 1940. Ugaki, Matome; Chihaya, Masataka (trans.). Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander in chief of the Japanese naval forces and architect of the Pearl Harbor attack, didn’t want a fight with America. [8] This experience may well have contributed to Nagumo's determination to launch another attack on Midway, in direct violation of Yamamoto's order to keep the reserve strike force armed for anti-ship operations. This, in spite of the fact that when Hideki Tojo was appointed Prime Minister on October 18, 1941, many political observers thought that Yamamoto's career was essentially over. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Admiral Osami Nagano, Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita, Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo . for Windows … On the morning of April 18, despite urging by local commanders to cancel the trip for fear of ambush, Yamamoto's two Mitsubishi G4M bombers, used as fast transport aircraft without bombs, left Rabaul as scheduled for the 315 mi (507 km) trip. The medical report was whitewashed, changed "on orders from above", according to biographer Hiroyuki Agawa.[31][32]. Nagumo graduated from the Naval War College, and was promoted to lieutenant commander in 1920. The defeat marked the high tide of Japanese expansion. [35] His funeral procession passed by Kawai's quarters on the way to the cemetery. It was done partly to make it harder for assassins to target Yamamoto. Only in numbers of carrier decks, available aircraft, and submarines was there near parity between the two sides. As Japan's military situation deteriorated, Nagumo was deployed on 4 March 1944 for the short-lived command of the 14th Air Fleet and the Central Pacific Area Fleet in the Mariana Islands. The Battle of Midway, in June 1942, brought Nagumo's near-perfect record to an end. [10] Witnesses saw Nagumo standing near the ship’s compass looking out at the flames on his flagship and two other carriers in a trance-like daze. As a midshipman, he served in the protected cruisers Soya and Niitaka and the armored cruiser Nisshin. Just as importantly, Japanese operational mishaps and American fighters and anti-aircraft fire devastated the dive bomber and torpedo plane formations of both Shōkaku's and Zuikaku's air groups. [23] As a result, Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Pacific Fleet commander, was able to place his outnumbered forces in a position to conduct their own ambush. [16] He was posthumously promoted to admiral and awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Golden Kite. note- Admiral Yamamoto tried hard arguing against the war but the Japanese Army had control and wanted battle. Afterwards, First Fleet (one light carrier, seven battleships, three cruisers and 13 destroyers), in conjunction with elements of Second Fleet, would mop up remaining US surface forces and complete the destruction of the American Pacific Fleet. From November 1940 to April 1941, Nagumo was commandant of the Naval War College. Yamamoto would eventually die in one of these aircraft. Physically, he suffered from arthritis, possibly from his younger days as a kendoka. Updated July 03, 2019. On 6 July, Nagumo killed himself with a pistol to the temple rather than the traditional seppuku. But blaming Adm. Kimmel or General Short for the disaster at Pearl Harbor is not as simple as it seems. He was hated by U.S. leaders for the surprise attack and they wanted revenge. The admiral wrote: To die for Emperor and Nation is the highest hope of a military man. Award-winning Japanese actor Toshiro Mifune (star of The Seven Samurai) portrayed Yamamoto in three films: In Shūe Matsubayashi's 1981 film Rengō kantai (lit. Unbeknownst to Admiral Yamamoto, the Americans had learned of Japanese plans thanks to the code breaking of Japanese naval code D (known to the US as JN-25). From 1920 to 1921, he was captain of the destroyer Momi, but was soon sent to shore duty with various assignments by the IJN General Staff. One son of Nagumo described him as a brooding father, obsessed with and later regretful about pressuring his sons into the IJN. [29] Knox essentially let Admiral Chester W. Nimitz make the decision. [30] Nimitz first consulted Admiral William Halsey Jr., Commander, South Pacific, and then authorized the mission on April 17 to intercept and shoot down Yamamoto's flight en route. From October 1943 to February 1944, Nagumo was again commander-in-chief of First Fleet, which was by that time largely involved in only training duties. Brave, urbane, and complex, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was Japan’s greatest naval strategist and the architect of one of the most stunning achievements in the history of … [citation needed], By this time, he had visibly aged, physically and mentally. What many people don't consider was that Nagumo was not under orders to actually destroy the infrastructure and oil storage of Pearl Harbor. These grandiose ventures were inevitably set aside, as the Army could not spare enough troops from China for the first two, which would require a minimum of 250,000 men, nor shipping to support the latter two (transports were allocated separately to the Navy and Army, and jealously guarded.). After serving in administrative positions from 1931 to 1933, he assumed command of the heavy cruiser Takao from 1933 to 1934, and the battleship Yamashiro from 1934 to 1935. An expert in judo, Nagumo landed lightly, whereas Kusaka badly sprained both ankles and was burned during the evacuation. By Nimitz's calculation, his three available carrier decks, plus Midway, gave him rough parity with Nagumo's First Mobile Force. With his air power destroyed and his forces not yet concentrated for a fleet battle, Yamamoto maneuvered his remaining forces, still strong on paper, to trap the American forces. 151–152; Lundstrom, p. 337, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrangeGoldsteinDillon1982 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFParshallTully2005 (, Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, "Office of Naval Intelligence Combat Narrative: "Midway's Attack on the Enemy Carriers, Breaching the Marianas: The Battle for Saipan, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, IJN, (1886-1944), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chūichi_Nagumo&oldid=994609123, Japanese military personnel who committed suicide, Suicides by firearm in the Northern Mariana Islands, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 16:33. as: I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. Following a nuisance raid by Japanese flying boats in May,[25] Nimitz dispatched a minesweeper to guard the intended refueling point for Operation K near French Frigate Shoals, causing the reconnaissance mission to be aborted and leaving Yamamoto ignorant of whether the Pacific Fleet carriers were still at Pearl Harbor. The First Air Fleet made a circuit of the Pacific, striking American, Australian, Dutch, and British installations from Wake Island to Australia to Ceylon in the Indian Ocean. Throughout the 1930s, the United States and Japan were locked in a stalemate over the latter’s desire to rule vast territories in Asia and the Pacific. The damaged aircraft were disproportionately dive and torpedo bombers, seriously reducing the ability to exploit the first two waves' success, so the commander of the First Air Fleet, Naval Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, withdrew. … Yonai was certain that if Yamamoto remained ashore, he would be killed before the year [1939] ended.[12]:103. Yamamoto, the itinerary revealed, would be flying from Rabaul to Balalae Airfield, on an island near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands, on the morning of April 18, 1943. [citation needed]. Like Tora! Barber turned away to attack the other transport as Yamamoto's plane crashed into the jungle. This plan was long believed to have been to draw American attention—and possibly carrier forces—north from Pearl Harbor by sending his Fifth Fleet (two light carriers, five cruisers, 13 destroyers, and four transports) against the Aleutians, raiding Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island and invading the more distant islands of Kiska and Attu.[22][23]. Although it was Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto who initiated the plans for the attack on Pearl Harbor, Commander Minoru Genda was the plan's chief architect. Yamamoto was a strong proponent of naval aviation and served as head of the Aeronautics Department, before accepting a post as commander of the First Carrier Division. Nagumo was born in the city of Yonezawa, Yamagata Prefecture in northern Japan in 1887. He allegedly created this consensus by provoking the Japanese into the attack on Pearl Harbor. Three major efforts to beat the Americans moving on Guadalcanal precipitated a pair of carrier battles that Yamamoto commanded personally: the Battles of the Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz Islands in September and October, respectively, and finally a wild pair of surface engagements in November, all timed to coincide with Japanese Army pushes. One man's life or death is a matter of no importance. In contrast, Nagumo's junior naval officers thought of him as a father figure. Nagumo led Japan's main carrier battle group, the Kido Butai, in the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Indian Ocean raid and the Battle of Midway. Reviews; Blog; Shop 0; Search; Open Mobile … The Japanese used the code name "Operation Hawaii" for the attack. It planned to resume the thrust with Operation FS, aimed at eventually taking Samoa and Fiji to cut the American lifeline to Australia. "Isoroku" is an old Japanese term meaning "56"; the name referred to his father's age at Isoroku's birth. But they acted nonchalantly and didn’t get a warning to Kimmel. [13] The omitted sentence showed Yamamoto's counsel of caution towards a war that could cost Japan dearly. Tour boats ferry people out to the USS Arizona Memorial in Hawaii every thirty minutes. It was the Japanese admiral who planned the Pearl Harbor operation. Yamamoto was responsible for a number of innovations in Japanese naval aviation. Many contemporaries and historians have doubted his suitability for this command, given his lack of familiarity with naval aviation. 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It necessary to seek an early, and saw to tactical integration and training Sugi.

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