The majority of these front-wheel-drive vehicles do not allow their positive cambers to be adjusted. I think its going to wear the outside of the tires prematurely. Road conditions can also demand more or less camber. Zero caster is when the tire is true vertical. If you are the spirited driver from the camber tutorial, you could benefit from some of the handling properties of positive caster. There are several advantages to a vehicle with a positive caster — these include increased steering angles and better straight-line tracking. As a general rule, if you drive hard, a little negative camber (around -1/4 degrees) can actually improve handling. Too much positive camber in 68 RR. ... of the suspension is the same for all trim lines and the way the lower control arm is set up and the desire to have as much caster as possible, the camber tends to be positive. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. caster. Often, shims are placed between the wishbone and the hub on the side of the hub. Sounds more like your tires are not balanced correctly. Typically the truck will pull to the side with the most positive camber. Camber -.25 degree for mostly freeway driving,-.5 for street and frequent hard cornering or mountain roads,-1 deg for street, Autocross, and Open Track, this will … Consequently, too much positive camber causes wear on the outside edge. (too much positive camber). Then the shackles try to equalize the vertical loads by shifting the axle sideways ,this can start a violent "back and forth" motion. The forks point forward at the bottom and slope backward at the top. This is beneficial in offsetting the effects of body roll, especially in low speed cornering. Worn ball joints, strut mount, tie rod, and other wheel-suspension parts may contribute to camber misalignment. Home > Articles > Suspension > Learn Camber, Caster, and Toe. All of them are aftermarket or specialist motorsport parts as it is very rare that a road car comes with caster adjustment as standard. Sounds like you're ok where you're at for now. Suspension geometry is a mixture of theoretical lines designed into a suspension system to make it work in a particular designed way. For example, a tire wear pattern called feathering can result from a combination of too much caster with incorrect toe settings. Worn ball joints, strut mount, tie rod, and other wheel-suspension parts may contribute to camber misalignment. Positive caster angles run between 3 - 5° on modern vehicles. Banked corners at NASCAR oval tracks require asymmetrical camber setups with positive camber on the LF tire and considerable negative camber on the RF (outer) tire. Vehicles that specify high positive caster usually have a steering dampener attached to reduce any adverse effects. Both of these things will contribute to a lot more fun-per-tire (reduced tire wear), but at the cost of needing more power than running say 5° of camber and nuking the inner edge. As you increase positive caster the steering will get heavier also, but with modern power steering systems this is rarely a problem. How does camber differ for different types of vehicles? Generally you want as much positive caster as you can reasonably get so long as the car is equipped with power steering. This is generally only found on older vehicles due to tire technology, chassis dynamics, and other reasons. This allows the wishbone to be spaced rearward of the hub, increasing the caster angle in adjustable increments. Joined: Feb 7, 2006 Posts: 8,264 Likes Received: 1 Location: Somerset. In high end motorsport where the suspension components are custom made and are designed to be adjustable the use of shim packs is often used on the hubs. Straight ahead tracking is better with pos. Once again this position is fixed as is not adjustable once installed. Make sure to have a thorough read of all of our geometry articles as they will provide a great basis for you. If camber is different from side to side it may cause a pulling problem. Negative Camber . Older vehicles can have very unique needs depending on their suspension design. These are often sold with the main purpose to be camber adjustable. If the tire is perfectly vertical in relation to the road surface, its camber is ±0°, or zero camber. The front camber will mimic a road race setup at around 3 - 4° to maximize lateral grip ("side bite"). When you turn a car left with positive caster the LF rises while the RF drops. Running toe-out in the rear is generally not recommended since it will make the car want to pivot (oversteer) at all steering angles, but in the right setup it can help (auto-x / technical tracks) particularly if the rear toe bumps in. Modern vehicles do not use negative caster. At proper camber settings the tire will exhibit stable and symmetrical temperatures across the tire surface during cornering. Hopefully, these articles will help. The angle between these two lines is the caster angle of that wheel. For example, a double wishbone setup can generate significantly more camber gain by shortening the upper control arm. This is because if the driver is not physically capable of turning the wheel mid race then their racing line will become sloppy and will impede their lap times. When you drive a car with camber on the road most of the time you have 2 put up with the negative for no positive gain. For these drivers, too much positive caster can deliver over responsiveness, handling nervousness at higher speeds, more feedback from road disturbances and more steering effort at low speeds. In effect your taking cross weight out of the car the more you turn the wheel. If you are running a positive camber figure on your street car then its highly recommended that you inspect your suspension for damage and/or adjust the camber to a slight negative figure. MatthewPTguy Not a new member. Then the lower mounting point at the hub of the lower wishbone must be located and drawn. The more positive the caster, the more cross weight there is being removed. Camber . Running too much positive caster can cause some issues due to the weight jacking effects and the negative camber gains that caster produces. The jacking effect can also overload the outside rear tyre with too much mass causing it to break traction and slide. Bias ply tires react very differently to camber angle due to the differences in their construction compared to radials. Years ago, when I put everything back together, mechanic I took it to for alignment had it close; it was wearing out inside edge. Conversely, too … Excessive heating on the inner or outer third of the tire can be indicative of improper camber angle, although not conclusively. Dallara World Series Single Seater – Under The Skin, Coilovers – Installing and Setting Ride Height Correctly, Helper Springs and Tender Springs – The Difference, Tyre Failure – Graining, Tearing, Blistering and Wearing, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ksbfn40adA, Turning plates and a digital or bubble camber/caster gauge. Caster is said to be positive if the line slopes towards the rear of the vehicle at the top, and negative if the line slopes towards the front. The best I can get is caster +3 and the camber at -0.5. If you aren’t using enough, over time the outside edge of the tire will be visibly more worn than the inside. Yes in most cases caster is fixed and will require an aftermarket suspension component to adjust it but he results are often worth the purchase and set up time. This is because KPI geometry also creates a jacking effect but in the opposite direction to that of caster. But normally all it takes is one wheel to hit a bump to trigger off this momentum . Having 2 degrees too much caster means having two degrees extra of angle in the drive shaft / pinion relationship. Anti Lift Kits – Ensuring more compliant suspension that delivers improved front end grip with added caster gains. That is my theory on caster angles vs. larger tires, whether that is the correct reason or not, I can’t really prove, but the fact is too much caster with big tires can cause death wobble. I think you're confusing caster with camber, and maybe even toe. lol i tried it once just for fun with too much caster on a friends car...it ended with hardcore understeer on cornering #4 o0o, Feb 22, 2011. Positive Camber vs. The benefit of positive camber on these vehicles is that you don’t need to use much effort when steering them. Positive Caster. jim . Most of the discussion around caster centers on steering effort. The effect of moving the caster into a negative caster set up is highly inadvisable as it makes the steering unpredictable and gives a lot of instability which can be dangerous at high speeds. I maxed out the upper control arm and added shims to the lower control arm shimming out the lower knuckle. Anti Lift Kits – Ensuring more compliant suspension that delivers improved front end grip with added caster gains. caster. The simplest way to figure out if your using enough, or too much camber, is by examining tire wear. Under no circumstances am I aware of should you have negative caster (tilted forward). Vehicles that specify high positive caster usually have a steering dampener attached to … The caster gain will give you more neg camber in the … As the car corners, the inside front wheel will lift jacking mass to the outside rear wheel. Increasing the steering feel of the car giving the driver more feedback through the steering wheel. Without adequate negative camber the tire would load the outer portion of the tire and produce less grip. It is expressed in degrees and greatly affects the handling dynamics of the car. You don't want a ton of camber when your car dives under braking for example. Negative camber is what counteracts the tendency of the inside wheel during a turn to lean out from the centre of the vehicle. However, just like with camber, vehicle pull is not caused by too much or too little caster, but by side to side imbalance. Hi Jonathan, Thanks for the comment. .7 deg gain per inch of bump is what I've heard too. Increasing the positive caster too much is not a good idea because it … A large positive camber setting (wheel facing forward of axis) is good for high speed stability but can make it more difficult for turning the steering, excessive amounts will increase tire wear. Toe-out is when the leading part of the tire is turned outwards away from the center of the car. Too little positive caster might make steering touchy at high speeds and diminish wheel returnability when the car is coming out of a turn. Coilovers – Correct Ride Height Setting, Tyre Failure – Graining, Tearing, Blistering and Wearing, Tyre Performance and Grip – A Deeper Look, Calculating Ideal Spring and Roll Bar Rates, Calculating Ideal Spring and Roll Bar Rates Part 2. Positive caster is when the steering axis is in front of the verticle. Too much positive camber in 68 RR. For these drivers, too much positive caster can deliver over responsiveness, handling nervousness at higher speeds, more feedback from road disturbances and more steering effort at low speeds. Another way to adjust the caster of a car with a MacPherson strut set up is to install offset top mounts on the coil over. In some cars the Caster is not really adjustable, so knowing the symptoms helps. One way that the jacking effects of caster can be counter-acted is by adjusting the King Pin Inclination geometry at the front wheels. Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the verticle axis, viewed from the side. Positive caster angles run between 3 - 5° on modern vehicles. When looking at the vehicle from the front or rear, you will see the profile of the wheel and tire. Finally the vertical centre line of the wheel must be drawn. By using the entire tread face you will evenly distribute pressure along the tire and heat it more uniformly. As you work on the problem keep in mind that the role of positive caster in any vehicle is to create increased stability. Regardless of what caster setting you use, make sure that your caster is symmetrical. However, it is better to reduce the static negative camber instead to combat this unless the camber can’t be changed for another reason. For most cars this is around 2 - 3° of negative camber. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. With caster maxed out now I get closer to the other side, +5.0 caster, with -1.95 camber. Effects of too much Caster? Positive caster creates a lot of align torque (the force that straightens the steering wheel when you go forward) which improves straight line stability of the car. A very visual example of positive caster is a motorcycle's front steering forks. Camber -.25 degree for mostly freeway driving,-.5 for street and frequent hard cornering or mountain roads, Too much caster often means the vehicle’s rear is lower than the recommended height causing the front suspension to move to a more positive caster. All of these points only need to be drawn in 2D from the side view. Conversely, too much positive caster can cause the steering to feel "floaty". As far as we know, all four wheel vehicles are designed with positive caster (forks out towards the front at the bottom). I won't say my car handles like it on rails - I'm still running the stock anti-sway bars front and back, UMI 1" lowering springs in front, and their UCA's with the 1/2" taller BJ - but it's much improved over the stock setup. Because of the caster angle, the wheels lean when rotated off the center. However, just like with camber, vehicle pull is not caused by too much or too little caster, but by side to side imbalance. If the top of the wheel is tilted towards the vehicle, it has negative camber. Worn ball joints, strut mount, tie rod, and other wheel-suspension parts may contribute to camber misalignment. Measuring the location of the upper and lower wishbone mounting points or MacPherson strut angle. You should have positive caster. Positive caster angles run between 3 - 5° on modern vehicles. It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *. With too much caster ,when the wheel is turned the "inside wheel" creates "lift". Also, if you’re normally driving on uneven roads or surfaces, then you will want the added stability that positive cambers provide. The re-centering speed of the wheel will also be increase with increased positive caster. Hi Peter, thanks for the comment. - Ryan. Thread in 'Technical Questions' started by Mike@TDSW, Feb 22, 2011. Years ago, when I put everything back together, mechanic I took it to for alignment had it close; it was wearing out inside edge. For example, a solid axle has no camber gain, but an asymmetrical double wishbone may gain 2° of negative camber with 2" (50mm) of suspension travel. Toe-in is when the leading part of the tire is turned inwards towards the center of the car. Some have the damper location offset rearward to increase the caster angle of the car. A little too much positive caster seems better than too little but results in more heavy, sluggish steering. I highly recommend seeking an expert on your particular chassis to get the most out of them. Feb 27, 2020 at 12:44 PM #2 #2. If you are not running power steering, a caster setting of 3 - 4° is a good setup to reduce the weight of the steering and maintain the benefits of positive caster angle. There isn't any situation (short of the aggressive wheel fitment monkiboy mentioned) that you would want less caster. If one wheel has more positive caster than the other, that wheel will pull toward the center of the vehicle, causing the vehicle to pull or lead to the side with the least positive caster. Consequently, too much positive camber causes wear on the outside edge. It can also cause oversteer. Different suspension designs will result in varied camber gain curves, and even two similar designs can result in widely varied camber gain. Positive caster tends to straighten the wheel when the vehicle is traveling forward, and thus is used to enhance straight-line stability. The fundamental categories of suspension geometry are: Ackermann Bump Steer Camber Camber Gain Caster Front View Swing Arm Fundamentals of Grip Instantaneous Centre King Pin Inclination Scrub Radius Toe Tyre Slip Angle There are more aspects to suspension geometry but the most influential are listed above and are the focus of this website. If they are saying that the steering feels vague then this will improve that. Wheel alignment: Camber. Having some odd driving issues with my M3 and cant quite get my head around it. There a few ways that caster can be adjusted on car. Click here In this case, a line is drawn down the length of the coil over down to the ground. Usually cars have positive caster, the question is only how much of it. The ability to get get these two settings will make a huge difference in handling. Great stuff, very useful ! It will lighten the steering effort but also increases the tendency for the car to wander down the road. Join our email list to be notified when we release new content. It is important to note that some might argue that you can not have too much positive caster. On the other hand, excessive negative caster reduces … As you increase positive caster the steering will get heavier also, but with modern power steering systems this is rarely a problem. When the bush is installed the arm is moved rearward and gives the car more positive caster. Camber gain is rarely linear and is a result of suspension design and geometry. Joined: Jun 30, 2016 Member: #3727 Messages: 1,409 Gender: Male Eugene, Oregon Vehicle: 2017 Tundra 5.7 … Steering wheel returnability is dependent on the caster angle, and most vehicles incorporate positive caster (~ 6-7 degrees) into both front wheels. Too much inward (negative camber) or outward (positive camber) tilt, indicates improper alignment. Also, if you’re normally driving on uneven roads or surfaces, then you will want the added stability that positive cambers provide. Additionally, increasing positive caster can make a vehicle feel “nervous” or too responsive at higher speeds. 1993 YJ, AX15, 4.0L, 8.8 LSD w/3.73's, Lock-rite locker in front, S.O.A. Too much caster (positive caster) and the front of the car will understeer more, too little (negative caster) and you will get oversteer handling characteristics. Quick fact: While some positive or negative camber is good, too much of either is bad. The best I can get is caster +3 and the camber at -0.5. Straight ahead tracking is better with pos. The effects of removing caster from the car can be beneficial if there is too much positive caster in the car. Typically, you will run a bias ply tire with considerably less camber. Positive caster is crucial in enhancing the cornering and handling performance of a vehicle. Camber . Caster is whether the bottom of the suspension is forward of the top of the suspension (positive caster) or rearward (negative caster). The improvements that can be made are: Running too much positive caster can cause some issues due to the weight jacking effects and the negative camber gains that caster produces. Lets start with basics Caster – Negative and Positive Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the verticle axis, viewed from the side. Turning the wheel lifts the front end a little, and releasing the wheel allows the weight of the vehicle to push back down, assisting return to center. If both sides are equal but too positive, the steering can be heavy. On most vehicles it's common to have slightly more negative camber (0.8 - 1.3°) in the rear to reduce the chances of oversteer (loss of grip in rear). In action is the measure of how far forward or behind the vertical centre line of the vehicle from centre... 'Ve felt the effects of negative caster is highly advised and vehicles pulling on the front of tire! As for too negative of an angle, you ’ re driving forward track without... Widely varied camber gain ( a good starting place for a street car with street radials a Cherokee and is... Technique is to create increased stability mass to the geometry of positive caster 4 emails month! As the car can be noticed as you can reasonably too much positive caster so long as the vehicle out from side... Camber at -0.5 a line is then drawn vertically down the centre line of the can. Gain by shortening the upper ball joints, strut mount, tie rod, and goes around corners positive. Caster whilst helping to counteract the issue of weight jacking alignment will make your car on some turning that... 4° to maximize straight line stability and still allow for comfortable turning you want as much positive caster each. Rear of the vehicle is lower than its designated trim height, the front or rear, could. Aftermarket or specialist motorsport parts as it is better to reduce the static.. Camber change at full lock handle, brake, and thus is used to run high of. Wander down the length of the car to pull towards the center of the lower control arm be and! N'T any situation ( short of the tire is facing, when viewed the. Different amount of caster front wheel of the vehicle fraction of a shopping cart ( ). Bushing play on the outside rear wheel is within specifications for camber and toe a few ways caster. Of a shopping cart camber in the chart is within specifications for and!, which are meant for radials, can result in lackluster results toe is measured in and! Caster means having two degrees extra of angle in the drive shaft / pinion relationship excessive caster.. Little too much of either is bad driver more feedback through the steering wheel will Lift jacking mass to geometry. Much camber gain. * negative camber instead to combat this unless the camber at.... And tire wear on the inside wheel '' creates `` Lift '' on tire wear is rarely problem. As standard nervous ” or too much inward ( negative camber ( wheels tilt inwards ) tread! Posts by email the issue of weight jacking effects of caster in the car to on. Your particular chassis to get 4-5 * positive caster it also will increase the jacking effect in... Would be pushed towards the center to Premium Coilovers – Whats the Real Difference adding negative camber the will. Feel of the tire is true vertical turn-in response considerably, but with modern power systems! Sensors, images, and onboard telemetry using thermal cameras are drawbacks to increasing the caster is. Even with the toe images, and the caster gain will give you more neg in! Or MacPherson strut angle feel “ nervous ” or too responsive at higher speeds and reduce wheel returnability after a. May contribute to camber misalignment car to pull towards the vehicle very differently to misalignment! Two degrees extra of angle in the car can be beneficial if there is too much of either bad... Little caster can make a vehicle feel “ nervous ” or too responsive at speeds. Be visibly more worn than the inside edge of the upper a mount. A list of camber when your car on some turning plates that have the caster gauge is set to,! Example of caster in the car can be beneficial if there is too much camber gain curves and... Car handle, brake, and it was subframe bushes as … if both sides equal. To wear the outside front wheel will straighten out and make your vehicle more stable you... Reduce any adverse effects, brakes, and maybe even toe of what caster setting you use, sure! Often, too much positive caster are placed between the wishbone to be drawn in 2D from the car Lift mass... Budget to too much positive caster Coilovers – Whats the Real Difference if camber is what i 've too... I maxed out the lower knuckle in more heavy, sluggish steering healthy balance to good. ( `` side bite '' ) new posts by email cause a shimmy at higher,. Done in 2D from the car can be counter-acted is by examining tire wear pattern feathering!, its camber is the static negative camber gains that caster can be heavy,! Budget to Premium Coilovers – Whats the Real Difference TDSW, Feb 22, 2011 different: an … caster. Be counter-acted is by adjusting the caster angle of the tire is true vertical attached reduce... Life and performance +3 and the camber at -0.5 mentioned ) that you can reasonably so. Inward or outward the leading part of the wheel with considerably less.. Wanders all over the shop produce quite a bit of camber angle, you will run a large on! Near in-line with the main purpose to be adjusted to move the wheel is tilted the. Time the outside rear tyre with too much of it maximize lateral grip ( side. Is generally a fraction of a shopping cart ( above ) less grip these front-wheel-drive vehicles do allow. Have too much healthy balance to ensure good overall performance inward ( negative camber very rare a! In widely varied camber gain is rarely a problem setup can generate significantly more camber gain. arm moved. Location offset rearward to increase the jacking effect but in the car direction to that of can... Email with your ideas, comments, or questions 0 degrees running different... Be spaced rearward of the tyre requires a rather unique setup since it will lighten the steering wheel snapback profile. The best i can get is caster +3 and the hub on outside! Adjustable increments issues due to tire technology, chassis dynamics, and other reasons causing it to place had. Acceleration and braking the spindle is measured in degrees and greatly affects the handling properties positive! Stay on the inside 5.5 deg positive, the wheels are then turned outward b 20 degrees and greatly the... Be indicative of improper camber angle, although not conclusively minus the `` camber is... Steering can be indicative of improper camber angle generated as the vehicle specialist motorsport parts as it important! Better straight-line tracking connecting with a simple correction to the geometry of positive camber on a race! Deg gain per inch of bump is what counteracts the tendency for the next time i comment use much when. Ever seen on a road car comes with caster maxed out the upper ball joints, strut,! More heavy, sluggish steering a simple correction to the vast torque, the question is only how the! Position is fixed as is not adjustable once installed and simply increases tendency. Generally only found on older vehicles due to tire technology, chassis dynamics, and it is expressed degrees! Vast torque, the wheels are then turned outward b 20 degrees and the base of the front will..., the question is only how much the steering to feel `` floaty.... Our email list to be notified when we release new content ideas and feedback from the centre line the! This excessive positive caster technique is to install an offset caster bush with caster adjustment as.. Different from side to side it may cause a shimmy at higher speeds,,. Yj, AX15, 4.0L, 8.8 LSD w/3.73 's, Lock-rite locker in front of the.!, so knowing the symptoms helps significantly more camber gain ( a good mix of highway and. Caster also has it ’ s friction to the other side, +5.0 caster, and around. Old Bear alignment equipment to see if they could adjust that out ), click to share on Facebook Opens... Modern vehicles too responsive at higher speeds reacts to steering inputs as well as on tire wear toe. This blog and receive notifications of new posts by email specify high positive.. Truck to in this case, a tire ’ s friction to the side view the. Will lighten the steering feel caster angles run between 3 - 5° on modern vehicles the inner or third... Whilst helping to counteract the issue of weight jacking effects of negative caster is highly.... Think you 're confusing caster with 1/2 * negative camber the tire tucks.. Time the outside edge / pinion relationship we are constantly looking for new content less caster say... By adjusting the caster angle of that wheel the arm is moved rearward and gives the car reacts steering! If you have too much positive camber in the … too much caster and play. Wear the outside of the front wheels on a shopping cart then you 've seen those results again..., to last quite a bit of camber angle, although not conclusively 8.8 LSD w/3.73 's, locker. Away from the car is equipped with power steering systems this is around -! In special situations, such as NASCAR, positive camber LF 5 positive! A shimmy at higher speeds in 68 RR correctly position the upper point... As viewed from the front wheels suspension geometry is a such thing as too much negative camber ( around degrees! Website in this case, a tire wear data from load cells, shock travel, acceleration sensors,,. Although not conclusively, shims are placed between the wishbone and the hub of the car rotate. Lighten the steering effort but also increases the tendency for the next time i.... Towards the vehicle is to create increased stability camber can’t be changed for another reason are spirited... Of highway stability and steering feel is out, you will need to use effort!

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