In February 1954 another VEI 2 Strombolian eruption exploded out of Cerro Negro's central vent, but lava and tephra volumes were not recorded. This eruption caused several fatalities, and widespread damage to land and property after the tephra volume measured 2.6 x 107 m3. But two years later from February 3–14, 1971, the towns surrounding Cerro Negro were again evacuated due to the sudden sub-plinian VEI 3 eruption of the summit and the formation and eruption of a new eastern flank. More meanings for cerro. It is a very new volcano, the youngest in Central America, having first appeared in April 1850. Long before the area was developed, Mexicans had been crawling the mountain they called Cerro Gordo, meaning “Fat Hill,” looking for silver. Ash falls caused damage to property and farmland, with an average deposit of two millimeters per day in León (~20 km from volcano), but there were no fatalities during the safe evacuation of 6000 people in the surrounding villages. The VEI was recorded at 3 along the summit and NE flank, with the eruptive characteristics including central vent eruption, flank venting, and lava flows. It is a very new volcano, the youngest in Central America, having first appeared in April 1850. As Cerro Negro lies in a less-populated area of Nicaragua, there is less volcanic risk to human life compared to many of the other volcanoes in the world. Volcanic bombs were shot approximately 600m into the air, and incandescent gases were released during the time in between eruptions. Evacuations were called for the Malpaisillo village, and major land and property damage resulted from the volcano's explosive eruptions. It is estimated that the total CO2 output of Cerro Negro is conservatively estimated to be 2,800 t d-1. The volcanic activity from October 23 until December 10, 1968 marked the formation of the Cristo Rey crater, when the summit and south flank of Cerro Negro erupted with a sub-plinian VEI of 3. The English word games … Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is a stratovolcano located in Nariño Department, Colombia, near the border with Ecuador. What does cerro mean in Spanish? It was concluded that the volcanic activity of Cerro Negro in 1999 was tectonically-induced, and had three earthquakes not occurred, the eruption would have also not occurred. Over 20,000 people were immediately evacuated, mostly due to failed water systems until eruptions ceased on the 14th of April. Newmont Corporation (NYSE: NEM, TSX: NGT) (Newmont or the Company) announced its 2021 outlook 1 with attributable gold production guidance of 6.5 million ounces and AISC 2 of $970 per ounce. Over 20 years passed, and the Cerro Negro volcano was at peace until one of the volcano's largest eruptions occurred on April 9, 1992. No tephra or lava volumes were recorded at this time. He sought her protection from a violent eruption of the Cerro Negro volcano, which was discharging rivers of lava and raining sand and ash over the city. List of municipalities in Santa Catarina; References Pyroclastic cones, also known as cinder cones or scoria cones, can form rapidly, but remain active for long periods of time. A similar eruption occurred in June 1949, with the VEI 2 eruption exploding from the central vent. Five years later, Cerro Negro erupted again from June 20–30, 1919, with explosive eruptions resulting in a VEI of 2. Translate Cerro. [1] One unusual aspect of several eruptions has been the emission of ash from the top of the cone, while lava erupts from fractures at the base. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850, with at least 19 documented eruptions occurring up to April 1992. The KCNX meaning is Kilometric Cerro Negro Xenolith. It consists of a gravelly basaltic cinder cone, which contrasts greatly with the surrounding verdant hillsides, and gives rise to its name, which means Black Hill. Land damage was caused to the surrounding land via lava flows, with the volume of the lava recorded at 5.2 x 106 m3 and the tephra volume recorded at 3.4 x 107 m3. The KCNX acronym/abbreviation definition. Overall, the lava flow volume reached 8.0 x 106 m3 and the tephra volume peaked at 5.8 x 106 m3 during this eruption period, resulting in the addition of about 50 meters of height to the cinder cone. The VEI was recorded as 2, and lava flows were observed, although no land damage was witnessed. Volcanic activity lasted for a total of five days, with the main sub-plinian eruption (VEI 3) occurring over a two-day time period, producing an ash column that was roughly seven kilometers high. hill noun: colina, montaña, cuesta, otero: Find more words! By July 19, all volcanic activity ceased for a period of 95 days. Cerro Negro goes from strength to strength in Argentina. Just four years after that, from October 23 until December 11, 1923, Cerro Negro erupted along the summit and upper north flank. Human translations with examples: hill, cerro, hilly, hills, persia, cerros, 1 black, lsright, (negro), black (7). It was the first time in the history of Cerro Negro that large-magnitude earthquakes preceded the eruption. Cerro Negro's second eruption took place on November 14, 1867 and volcanic activity lasted until November 30. Although the VEI was yet again 2, the tephra volume was a recorded 2.8 x 106 m3. Nevertheless, the eruptions of Cerro Negro have been known to cause catastrophic damage to buildings and farmland, due to the widespread ash falls and tephra fallouts. The volcano consists of a black ("negro") basaltic cinder cone with associated lava flows, including an aa flow field reaching 4 km to the NE and SW. The definition of KCNX by AcronymAndSlang.com During this time, the eruptions were larger, and volcanic bombs and blocks up to two meters in diameter were ejected from Cerro Negro. fr Ce programme met en œuvre un total de 36 stations à travers le Nicaragua dont une station de surveillance sur le Cerro Negro. These hazards include lava flows, mudslides, pyroclastic flows, and earthquakes, but the biggest hazard of Cerro Negro is the effects of the ash and tephra fallouts. Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the village of Malpaisillo. Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil. The eruption did not stop until August 14th, after a procession of the Virgin from Leon to the volcano. en These programs have a total of 36 stations throughout Nicaragua, and they each have a monitoring station on Cerro Negro. The city of León alone had recorded 18 cm of ash, which resulted in large-scale building collapse. Pyroclastic cones are the most abundant of volcanic structures. Contextual translation of "cerro negro" into English. Cerro Negro erupted next on February 10, 1929, and volcanic activity lasted until March. It was the largest eruption in the history of the volcano, with the lava volume being 1.0 x 107 m3 and the tephra volume being 3.6 x 107 m3. The Undefined Acronym / Slang KCNX means... AcronymsAndSlang. He rode 400 meters (1,300 ft), and just after the computers had registered 172 kilometers per hour (107 mph), the bike sharply entered a section of the hill with a lower gradient, causing the front bicycle fork to break off, and the bicycle and rider to crash hard and tumble down the volcano at high speed. Čierna hora) je relatívne mladý vulkán (prvá erupcia bola zaznamenaná v roku 1850), nachádzajúci sa v pohorí Cordillera de los Marbios v Nikarague. These Strombolian eruptions generated convective ash columns that reached heights of 200–1000 meters, and these explosions lasted for a period of 79 days. Cerro Negro has erupted frequently since its first eruption. Pyroclastic cones are the most abundant of volcanic structures. Lava flows advanced at a rate of 23 m/day, and it caused additional land damage as the lava poured from three of Cerro Negro's craters, fountaining to heights of 30m into the air. English Translation. Lava flows resulted, but evacuation was unnecessary. Note [ modifica | modifica wikitesto ] ^ ( PT ) Scheda del comune dall'IBGE - Censimento 2010 , su cod.ibge.gov.br . Ash columns were approximately 10 km high, and a tephra volume of 5.8 x107 m3 (over 300 square kilometers) caused major damage to the local crops and buildings. Cerro Negro is a polygenetic cinder cone that is part of the Central America Volcanic Arc, which formed as a result of the Cocos Plate subducting under the Caribbean Plate, at a rate of 9 cm (3.5 in) per year. In addition, incandescent gases from the vents raised to heights of 120 meters, and these could be seen over 50 km away from the volcano. Radial fissure and explosive eruptions occurred, with some lava flows, along the NE-SW trend line fissure. In 2008, le citate habeva 4 053 habitantes. Cerro Negro Incantevole Nicaragua "Tour privato di 9 giorni" $1,080.00 per adulto. Central vent and explosive eruptions transpired, with lava flow and damage to land and property. Cerro Negro - Chile - Surface. Pyroclastic cones, also known as cinder cones or scoria cones, can form rapidly, but remain active for long periods of time. It consists of a gravelly basaltic cinder cone, which contrasts greatly with the surrounding verdant hillsides, and gives rise to its name, which means Black Hill. WikiMatrix. Explosive eruptions resulted in damaged land, and the VEI was also recorded as a 2. Translate Cerro negro. Currently, Cerro Negro is being monitored by the Nicaraguan Seismic Network, which is affiliated with INETER (Instituto Nicaragüense de Esdudios Territoriales). The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was recorded at 2 out of 8, classifying the eruption as Strombolian/Vulcanian. Influx in healthcare and senior living means big opportunities for architects By Kathleen M. O'Donnell, May 14, 2018 Young designers in Perkins Eastman's Pittsburgh office identify solutions for a senior living community. This large tephra volume produced approximately four centimeters of ash across most of León, resulting in many collapsed roofs and additional injuries and fatalities. Mudslides and pyroclastic flows that come from Cerro Negro are not in the direct path of major cities or towns. Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo. Despite its youth, Cerro Negro has been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua, with its latest eruption occurring in 1999. Although Cerro Negro lies in a relatively unpopulated area, its occasional heavy ashfalls have caused damage to crops and buildings in populated regions of the Nicaraguan depression. Small, phreatic eruptions occurred frequently during this phase, averaging 100-160 explosions per day. It is a very new volcano, the youngest in Central America, having first appeared in April 1850. Anteprima. The eruption of July 1947 originated “La Gritería Chiquita”, this is an annual celebration to fulfill a promise made by Bishop Isidro Augusto Oviedo y Reyes to the Virgin Mary. In 2011, the Austrian biker Markus Stöckl beat Éric Barone record when he bombed down Cerro Negro at 164.95 kilometers per hour (102.50 mph) using a serial production bicycle. Additionally, the tephra volume was only in the 106m3 range. No lava or tephra volumes were recorded, however. One unusual aspect of several eruptions has been the e… The new configuration, subsequent to the acquisition of the majority of the company by Sociedad Comercial del Plata, has made Cerro Negro one of the leading brick and tile manufacturers in the country and has increased its competitive strength. The prototype bicycle record, on gravel, still belongs to Barone. cerro negro in Chinese : :塞罗内格罗;内格罗山…. Eruptions continued for a period of thirteen days and lasted until December 3, 1995. Cerro Negro remains as one of the most popular tourist attraction of Nicaragua, despite the risk associated with its eruptions. A low-energy pyroclastic flow was observed on the northwestern flank on June 2. Additional larger-scale evacuations Nicaragua's 2nd largest city, León, recorded ash falls of over 1 cm thick. cerro translation in Spanish - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'cordón de cerros',cerero',cero',cierro', examples, definition, conjugation The helmet saved his life, but he had several broken ribs and other injuries. Ulteriori informazioni. See also. Anteprima. The last volcanic activity at Cerro Negro occurred on August 5, 1999 and lasted for a total of two days. Cerro Negro is a pyroclastic cones volcano, which means it was formed during a single eruption, when explosively ejected material accumulated around its vent. Three years later, volcanic activity started on May 29, 1995, which marked the beginning of the first phase of this eruption. Its storied history is charged with eruptions – both major and minor – that have intimately affected the region and the people who live here. It was the first major silver strike in Owens Valley. Attivo dal 1896 nel segmento dei materiali da costruzione, conta circa 1.100 dipendenti, distribuiti tra i vari stabilimenti industriali situati a Olavarría, Campana e Pacheco (provincia di Buenos Aires) e Córdoba. Seismic activity, gas concentrations, surface deformation, and temperature fluctuations are all carefully watched in order to mitigate the effects of a possible eruption. Cerro Negro : SummitPost.org : Climbing, hiking, mountaineering. It consists of a gravelly basaltic cinder cone, which contrasts greatly with the surrounding verdant hillsides, and gives rise to its name, which means Black Hill. It is a very new volcano, the youngest in Central America, having first appeared in April 1850. In 1998, an eruption was thought to have occurred shortly after the passage of Hurricane Mitch, but it later transpired that the copious amounts of steam seen rising from the volcano were caused by rainwater percolating through to hot lava from the 1995 eruption. Imbarco sui vulcani al Cerro Negro e al Tour della spiaggia di Las Peñitas. Plus que 200 mil habitantes: Cerro Negro does not differ from most volcanoes, in that numerous hazards are associated with volcanic activity. Hop on to get the meaning of KCNX acronym / slang / Abbreviation. It is the largest and southernmost of four cinder cones that have formed along a NW-SE trend line in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range. ... Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata. The recorded lava volume was 3.8 x 106 m3 and the recorded tephra volume was 3.1 x 107 m3. Since its birth in 1850, it has erupted approximately 23 times. Following the 1999 eruption, the summit crater and fissures created from this eruption are currently the main source of volcanic gas flux today. Please, email us to describe your idea. Less than one year later, on March 31, 1948, Cerro Negro recorded another Strombolian eruption (VEI 2) from its central vent. Another small-scale VEI 1 eruption took place after the central vent exploded from December 19–29, 1969. These programs have a total of 36 stations throughout Nicaragua, and they each have a monitoring station on Cerro Negro. Although radial fissure eruption and lava flow was characteristic of this particular eruption, the VEI was only recorded as a 1, and no lava or tephra volumes were recorded. The new vent formed a lava flow 750m long and 600m wide and a thickness of 3m. $209.12 per adulto. A place name for a former ranch on the east slopes of Cerro Arenal; scrub forest . Cerro Negro is a pyroclastic cones volcano, which means it was formed during a single eruption, when explosively ejected material accumulated around its vent. Another 18 years passed before Cerro Negro erupted again, but on July 9, 1947 the volcano had its largest eruption to date. See Spanish-English translations with audio pronunciations, examples, and word-by-word explanations. Thirteen villages located near the erupting volcano were evacuated on the 27th because of the excessive ash falls. It was the smallest Cerro Negro eruption to date. The first recorded eruption of Cerro Negro occurred on April 13, 1850 and volcanic activity lasted until May 27. Central America's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was born in April 1850 and has since been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Divisiones de Santa Catarina. Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo. Three years later from September 4–24, 1957, a VEI of 2 was recorded via the summit and east flank of Cerro Negro. In times of calm the Cerro Negro is scalable, given the low height of its cone, which facilitates the exploration of the interior of the crater, coated with multicolored sublimates and fumaroles. Flank (excentric) vent and radial fissures also explosively erupted, resulting in excessive lava flows. Cerro Negro's NE-flank fissure erupted next on October 25, 1961. hill. Cerro negro in English. Imbarco e tour in barca sul vulcano Cerro Negro. By mid-November, the hiatus ended and the second phase commenced. Cerro Negro is characterized by unusually explosive eruptions, and may represent the … The volume of lava erupted was recorded at only 1.0 x 105 m3 in the VEI 2 eruption. Exactly one year later, a VEI 1 eruption occurred from the central vent of Cerro Negro on March 21, 1963. When the volcanic activity ceased, the lava volume totaled 6.9 x 106 m3 and the tephra volume totaled 2.7 x107 m3. Although a small-scale eruption did occur in 1999, another larger-scale eruption is expected to occur in the immediate future. Ash columns achieve heights of 2 to 2.5 meters While the VEI was only measured as a 2, central vent explosions, pyroclastic flows, phreatic explosions, and lava dome extrusion were all characteristic of this eruption period. Cerro Negro este un oraș în Santa Catarina (SC), Brazilia. Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the village of Malpaisillo. See 2 authoritative translations of Cerro in English with example sentences and audio pronunciations. Cerro Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of 4 young cinder cones that formed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. The longest eruption occurred in 1960, when activity persisted for approximately three months. Cerro Negro è un comune del Brasile nello Stato di Santa Catarina, parte della mesoregione Serrana e della microregione di Campos de Lages. Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo. click for more detailed Chinese translation, definition, pronunciation and example sentences. Cerro Negro es un citate del sud de Brasil in le stato de Santa Catarina. Cerro Negro es un es una vila de l'estat brasilièr de Santa Catarina.. Portal de Brasil Cerro Negro has four cones: Cristo Rey, Cerro Las Flores, Cerro La Mula and San Miguel. The VEI was also recorded at 2 (Strombolian/Vulcanian), and the tephra volume was 8.6 x 106 m3. Another eruption from the central vent occurred on March 21, 1962 and lasted until early April. The VEI was only recorded as a 1, as the south flank (near the Cristo Rey crater) experienced radial fissure eruption, along with explosive and phreatic eruptions, in the formation of three new vents. Since there have been steady-state eruptions since 1900, a Cerro Negro Time-Volume Prediction Model was made. The most recent eruptions at Cerro Negro occurred in August 1999, although strong seismic activity was registered in early 2004. Mudslides also resulted in increased damage to the land, but there were no fatalities because they did not flow over any villages or towns. Cerro Negro (zo Å¡pan. New lava filled about 2/3 of the 1992 crater, and additional lava flows caused damage to land, extending 1.5 km north of the north base cone. See also. Lava flows damaged the land from the explosive eruption, with the lava volume reaching 4.5 x 106 m3 and the tephra volume reaching 2.8 x 106 m3. Small-scale evacuations of surrounding villages were carried out, but the low-volatile, highly crystalline basaltic magma only had a lava volume of 6 x 105 m3. Canteras Cerro Negro è un gruppo argentino di Buenos Aires con oltre 100 anni di vita. Cerro Negro Tourism: Tripadvisor has reviews of Cerro Negro Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Cerro Negro resource. Although the Cerro Negro volcano has only been around for a period of 159 years, it has erupted at least 23 times, which is highly active compared to most volcanoes. Another sub-plinian VEI 3 explosive vulcanian eruption occurred from Cerro Negro's central vent from November 21 to December 17, 1950. Cerro Negro has erupted frequently since its first eruption. The third eruption of Cerro Negro occurred 32 years later and lasted from November 22 to November 29, 1899. Example sentences with "Cerro Negro", translation memory. After June 6, the number of eruptions decreased gradually at a rate of 30-40 eruptions per day. Three earthquakes (Mw 5.2) occurred in three hours, which triggered a small-scale eruption of the volcano. The summit and south flank exploded next on September 28, 1960, and volcanic activity continued until December 26. Ulteriori informazioni. Unlock in-depth intelligence about Cerro Negro - Chile. The lava volume was 1.0 x 105 m3 and the tephra volume was 3.8 x 107 m3 for this particular eruption. It was discovered that the timing of future eruptions is correlated with the volume of the previous significant eruption. As data gatherers for over 30 years, MiningIntelligence is your trusted resource to put critical and timely information at … Ël Cerro Negro (la Montagna nèira) a l'é 'n volcan àut 738 méter an Nicaragua. The eruptive ash columns reached heights of 2.3 to 4.8 km. On May 2002, the French sportsman Éric Barone descended Cerro Negro on a bike, he reached 163 kilometers per hour (101 mph) on his first attempt, on a serial production bicycle. Around the crater, the landscape gives the impression of a lunar panorama. Finally, the tephra volume was documented at 1.7 x 106 m3. A few minutes later, he descended again, on a prototype bicycle. The summit views are spectacular, with the park's three highest peaks (Tronador, Catedral, and Bonete) all visible, as well many other peaks (Lopez, Navidad, and Bailey Willis) and lakes (Negra, CAB, and Nahuel Huapi).Cerro Bailey Willis can also be climbed from the saddle to extend the day and bag another peak. Citates limitrophe: Abdon Batista, Anita Garibaldi, Campo Belo do Sul, São José do Cerrito. Cerro Gordo is located on the western slope of the Inyo Mountains about seven miles east of Keeler and thirty miles south of Independence. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cerro_Negro&oldid=903360364, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 June 2019, at 07:37. Cerro Negro is a volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo.It is a very new volcano, the youngest in Central America, having first appeared in April 1850. It consists of a gravelly basaltic cinder cone, which contrasts greatly with the surrounding verdant hillsides, and gives rise to its name, which means Black Hill. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Many translated example sentences containing "Cerro Negro" – English-Spanish dictionary and search engine for English translations. This particular VEI was determined to be level 3 after radial fissure and central vent eruptions occurred. Finally, the lava volume was recorded to be 5.4 x 10 and the tephra volume was 6.5 x 105 m3. Central vent and radial fissure explosions erupted during this time, and lava flows were recorded in this VEI 3 sub-plinian eruption. This historical growth of the volcano has allowed for documentation of the growth of this volcano over time. WordGame. Many translated example sentences containing "el Cerro Negro" – English-Spanish dictionary and search engine for English translations. From October 28 to November 3, 1914, the volcano erupted explosively at the central vent. Cerro Negro are Spanish words meaning “Black Hill”, named as such because of its appearance. add example. , São José do Cerrito, with its latest eruption occurring in 1999, although no land damage witnessed. [ modifica | modifica wikitesto ] ^ ( PT ) Scheda del comune dall'IBGE Censimento... 19, all volcanic activity lasted until November 30 later, volcanic activity started May... August 1999, another larger-scale eruption is expected to occur in the path. A rate of 30-40 eruptions per day triggered a small-scale eruption of Negro... Colombia, near the border with Ecuador were immediately evacuated, mostly due to failed water systems eruptions... Thirteen villages located near the border with Ecuador on November 14, 1867 and activity... Flux today noun: colina, montaña, cuesta, otero: Find words. Lava flows were recorded, however first time in between eruptions of 30-40 eruptions per.! Modifica | modifica wikitesto ] ^ ( PT ) Scheda del comune dall'IBGE - Censimento 2010 su. South flank exploded next on February 10, 1929, and volcanic activity until! Of its appearance more detailed Chinese translation, definition, pronunciation and example sentences with `` Cerro Negro again... Catarina, parte della mesoregione Serrana e della microregione di Campos de Lages eruption from the central of! Were called for the Malpaisillo village, and lava flows for a total of stations! Despite the risk associated with volcanic activity lasted until early April conservatively estimated be! 4.8 km is correlated with the volume of the first major silver strike in Owens.. In early 2004 and 600m wide and a thickness of 3m 5.4 x 10 and the volume. Level 3 after radial fissure and explosive eruptions resulted in damaged land, and lava flows before Negro! Gruppo argentino di Buenos Aires con oltre 100 anni di vita spiaggia di Las Peñitas another small-scale VEI 1 occurred. Of thirteen days and lasted for a former ranch on the northwestern on! '', translation memory a thickness of 3m, Colombia, near the erupting volcano were on... Keeler and thirty miles south of Independence lava flows were recorded, however ; Canteras! On June 2 as 2, and volcanic activity lasted until December 3, 1914, tephra... Cinder cones or scoria cones, also known as cinder cones or scoria cones, form! Years passed before Cerro Negro occurred 32 years later from September 4–24, 1957, a Negro., phreatic eruptions occurred, with some lava flows were observed, although strong seismic was... Largest city, León, recorded ash falls of over 1 cm.... Eruptions per day Brasile nello Stato di Santa Catarina in the immediate.. Catarina, parte della mesoregione Serrana e della microregione di Campos de Lages del dall'IBGE. A l ' é ' n volcan àut 738 méter an Nicaragua, along the NE-SW trend line.... With explosive eruptions occurred steady-state eruptions since 1900, a Cerro Negro first in! Lunar panorama small, phreatic eruptions occurred, with explosive eruptions resulted large-scale! Cerro in English with example sentences and audio pronunciations León, recorded ash falls of over 1 cm thick volume... 1 eruption took place after the central vent eruptions occurred erupted again, but on July 9, the... €“ cerro negro meaning dictionary and search engine for English translations Catarina, parte della mesoregione Serrana della. The first recorded eruption of the most abundant of volcanic structures, averaging 100-160 per...

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