Write about the life history of Purandaradasa. 4. Sri VENKAT ACADEMY OF MUSIC was started in the year 2002 by Dr. Sailaja Panthulu with the support of her husband Dr. Raghu Panthulu, in memory of her beloved father-in- law late Sri P. Venkata Subbaiah, who was an ardent disciple of Late Sri Maharajapuram Viswantha Iyer [father of Late Sri Maharajapuram Santhanam – a renowned Carnatic Vocalist]. [6], The student of classical music – after faithfully evaluating the effect of listening and observation as aids for sadhana – strives to study the role of acquiring Lakshana Jnanam ('theoretical knowledge') as an aid to Lakshya Sadhana ('practical attainment') in order to uplift knowledge of music gained and realizing its practical utilities/applications. Knowledge of : Thandavam, Lasyam, Pancha Paanam (of Manmadhan), “However, as the ‘modest demonstrations’ of the codified Lakshanas of the gesture vocabulary unfolded, one found much material to understand and appreciate. Find the best information and most relevant links on all topics related toThis domain may be for sale! Interprets the language of rhythm with the help of body movements. Lakshanas of adavu :- (4 types) 1. 5. Knowledge of Asamuta hastas, samyuta hastas, Nritta hastas, Shiro Bedha, Drshti Bedha, Greeva Bedha and Bhru Bedha. The work covers the entire gamut of musical theory from a general article on Indian music to a detailed description of the various technical aspects of Carnatic music like Grama, Srutis, Tala, Raga lakshanas, the 72 Melakartas and prominent composers who made their invaluable contribution to our music. 7. In tamil its called pokku or gathi of the ragam. It is the nature of the Guṇas that there cannot remain even a moment without the evolutionary changes of dharma, lakshana and avastha, for movement is the characteristic of the gunas whose nature is the cause of constant movement, which changes the mind also experiences in accordance with its two qualities visible and invisible; the visible qualities are those whose changes can be noticed as conscious states or thought-products or precepts, whereas the invisible qualities are those whose changes can only be established by inference. Palkuri Somanatha (13th century) wrote Basavapurana, Panditaradhyacharitra in the popular desi ballad Dwipada. A Neat Bharatanatyam by Vidushi Geeta Sirisha- B’luru. [7] According to Anga Ranga, a very ancient method, women are divided into four distinct classes of temperament that correspond to the four phases of liberation (moksa). eg. Lakshana (Sanskrit: लक्षण lakṣaṇa) – derived from the combination of words lakshya and kshana – means 'indication' or 'symptom'. About Bharatanatyam. Some of the famous Bharatanatyam performers are Bala Saraswathi, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Rugmini Arundel, Kamala Laxman, Padma Subrahmaniam and Chithra Visweswaran. Each bani has very definite lakshanas. Dasiattam - Sadir - Bharata Natyam. Write the history of Kuchipudi dance. meaning mother. Basic concepts of 'Bharatanatyam' are Bhava, Raga and Thaala.Bharatanatyam derives its origin based on the theories posted in the books 'Natyasaasthram' and 'Abhinaya Darpanam'. In this product Raga Lakshanas of Ragas Devagandhari & Hamir Kalyani have been explained in detail and demonstrated by the veteran V. Subrahmaniam so as to give a deeper insight into the raga and its nuances and enable students to render it without ambiguity. Shruti is often called the Maataa, the mother of music. Venkatamakhi too has composed many Lakshana gitas. Carnatic Courses . The knowledge of Lakshana is essential for Lakshya sadhana. This program is designed to cover the fundamentals of music both in theoretical and practical ways, that create and develop the love and interest for Carnatic Music. The sari worn in a special manner is … Varna, Shabda, Pada etc. Lakshanas of: (a) Dancer - Pathiram (b) Apathiram (c) Sabhanayakan (d) Sabha (e) Kinkini 6. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. Studying Music opens up many career opportunities. “However, as the ‘modest demonstrations’ of the codified Lakshanas of the gesture vocabulary unfolded, one found much material to understand and appreciate. 3. Bharatanatyam is a seamless blend of Nritta (rhythmic elements), Nritya (combination of rhythm with expression) and Natya (dramatic element). Adavus in 5 Jaatis and other Adavus 2. lakshanas of Bharatanatya Marga items, spiritual Unit – 4: Significance of nataraja Sapta Tandavas Introduction to Temple Sculptures of South India II Semester Practical - II Maximum Marks 100 (80+10+10) 3 CREDITS 1. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Lakshya (target or aim to be accomplished) is based on Kalpana ('imagination','inspiration') and Lakshana is like grammar, the former is not clear without the latter. 2. arabhi ragam varnam, In Abhogi ragam, which is a janya ragam of 22nd melakarta Kharaharapriya, the Arohana is "S R2 G1 M1 D2 S". Describe musical instruments in Bharatanatyam. This ragam is an asymmetric scale and is classified as an "audava-shadava" ragam (five notes in the ascending scale and six notes in the descending scale). Charchari, Dwipada, Elaprabhanda, Kanda Prabhandha also find a place in Brihaddesi. Sancharams or musical phraseology is the melodic journey of notes in the ragam. The style of dressing of a Bharatanatyam dancer is more or less similar to that of a Tamil Hindu bride. A systematic approach to the ashtavidha nayikas and their lakshanas. Paidala Gurumurti Sastry was a prolific composer of gitas after Purandaradasa. The Kishna Brothers Ram and Suresh from The Netherlands, studied at the source of Bharata Natyam, at Tanjore Guru K.P.Kittappa Pillai and his son Tanjore K.P.K.Chandrasekaran, they are one of the few artists whom have kept the original concept of Alarippu safe. 3. The Dagar bani is more madhur or pleasing and saral or uncomplicated. The Dagar bani is more madhur or pleasing and saral or uncomplicated. Dance basic forms; 12 Kinds of Adavu ; Mei Adavu - Alankara Adavu ; Korvai should be done in Adi & Rupaka Thalam - 2 to 4 Aavarthanams. Career. [3], Vyasa-bhashya (VIII.13) explains that in the smallest particle of time or kshana the whole universe undergoes a change. 4. 5. Women dancers wear a gorgeous tailor-made sari that consists of a cloth specially stitched in pleats that falls in the front from the waist. In tamil its called pokku or gathi of the ragam. Each bani has very definite lakshanas. In matters pertaining to the prediction of future events, the word, Lakshana, means a mark or an omen. For the actress, see, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lakshana&oldid=992905222, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 18:57. Appearance is called Dharma, and the arrangement of objects or qualities is called Dharmin; the change of appearance is called Dharma-parinama which has two aspects – Lakshana-parinama and Avastha-parinama, which are not intrinsically different. Sight, Eyebrow, Eye lids, Eye balls, Cheeks, Nose, Gums, Lower Lip, Teeth, Tongue, Chin and Face are the 12 Upaangas. 5. Name the Sapta Talas and write the formation of 35 talas. maattirai - a unit for reckoning musical time. Sancharams or musical phraseology is the melodic journey of notes in the ragam. [1] It also means 'an auspicious mark', 'attribute' or 'quality'. To understand and appreciate poetry, she advocated the step-by-step approach: Read the word, understand the word; Leave the word and catch the line; Leave the line, assimilate the poem; Make the poem a part of you. Mangaluru: Vidushi Geeta Sirisha of Bengaluru gave a neat bharatanatyam recital in Shashi-Shankara Hall, Puttur on October 14th on the occasion of 19th series of Nrityaantaranga conducted by Sri Mookambika Cultural Academy (R.), Puttur. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. Français : Bharatanatyam - Apprendre les Slokas de l'Abhinayadarpanam (leçons pour débutants), par Harini NC, directrice de Kalavenue. Similar approach to nayikas with their bhava lakshana. While promoting Sadir dance as a cultural heritage, the supporters of the art must have discussed its link with the ancient treatise ‘The Natya Shastra’ by Bharata Muni. A systematic approach to the ashtavidha nayikas and their lakshanas. “Bharatanatyam that evolved from Melattur is unique in many ways. 7. Lakshana (Sanskrit: लक्षण lakṣaṇa) – derived from the combination of words lakshya and kshana – means 'indication' or 'symptom'. As well as jobs in music (from performance, composition, and production, through teaching, music therapy and community arts, to arts management and industry, and a lot more besides), employers in many sectors are increasingly seeking arts and humanities graduates for their transferable skills. Name them & explain. Sudha Seshayyan’s session dealt with a key aspect of vachika abhinaya. P Sambamurthy, The Indian Music Publishing House, 2002, pbk, xxxiv, 1815 p, tables, $75.00 (Includes free airmail shipping) In order to understand the concept and to perform Angalakshana, one has to understand and practice the categorization of the human body. Sabha Lakshanam Shloak from Abhinay Darpana with meaning in English and Marathi ... • In Bharatanatyam… lakshanas of Bharatanatya Marga items, spiritual Unit – 4: Significance of nataraja Sapta Tandavas Introduction to Temple Sculptures of South India II Semester Practical - II Maximum Marks 100 (80+10+10) 3 CREDITS 1. Classification of hero’s in dance and drama according to their behavior (guna lakshanas), ubha nayakas and their bhava lakshanas, character study on dhoota, dhoti, sakhi and sakha according to their relationship with the hero’s and the heroines. Al the Carnatic courses you need in one directory. The direct sense points to the identity of between Ishvara and Jiva. Vardaraja draws attention to Panini’s statement referred to at St.152 to the effect that after whatsoever there is an affix (pratyaya) enjoined, let what begins therewith, in the form in which it appears when the affix follows it, be called an inflective base (anga) e.g. P Sambamurthy, The Indian Music Publishing House, 2002, pbk, xxxiv, 1815 p, tables, $75.00 (Includes free airmail shipping) Write about the life history of Purandaradasa. maataa. One of the 13 lakshaNas of a raaga. Find the Carnatic course you are looking for on Emagister, the most comprehensive online guide to courses in India. [5], Advaita Vedanta refers to the three meanings that all words and sentences carry – the primary or direct meaning, the implied meaning and the suggested meaning. arabhi ragam varnam, In Abhogi ragam, which is a janya ragam of 22nd melakarta Kharaharapriya, the Arohana is "S R2 G1 M1 D2 S". 7. As distinguished from the type of gitas described above, known as Lakshya gitas or Samanya gitas, which, as the name itself suggests, describe the Lakshanas of the raga in which they are composed. The prime motto of this Product is to hand down significant kritis in the Semmangudi Bani to the next generation in its pristine form. 2. The Science of Bharata Natyam Saroja Vaidyanathan, Kanishka Publishers, 2015, Third Revised Edition, xv, 88 p, plates, figs., tables, ISBN : 9788173913889, $42.00 (Includes free airmail shipping) Add to Cart Add to Wishlist Print Name the Sapta Talas and write the formation of 35 talas. Interprets the language of rhythm with the help of body movements. Bharatanatyam:Syllabus for Grade-4 PRACTICAL . Similar approach to nayikas with their bhava lakshana. Nritta : Rhythmic Element. 1. Answer any four of the following Raga Lakshanas given below : Vasanta, Kambhoji, Mohana, Todi, Anandabhairavi. Lakshanas of Sapta talas and formation of 35 talas. It appears that the term Bharata Natyam gradually crept into their conversation and Sadir dance got re-christened Bharata Natyam. Shira or shirasa meaning ” Head” in sanskrit. Avastha-parinama is change of condition which is not materially different from Lakshana-parinama and hence its mode; it is on account of this that an object is called new or old, grown or decayed. Conveys poetic meaning with the help of expressions, rhythmic gaits and postures. This program is designed to cover the fundamentals of music both in theoretical and practical ways, that create and develop the love and interest for Carnatic Music. in the case of addressing two or more persons of the same name, say - Rama, the Ramas need not be addressed as Oh two Ramas but the -s is to be dropped without change in meaning (intention) and addressed as Oh Rama which would suffice the intended purpose. 2. 7. [2] In Tamil language, Lakshanam means "features". If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. As well as jobs in music (from performance, composition, and production, through teaching, music therapy and community arts, to arts management and industry, and a lot more besides), employers in many sectors are increasingly seeking arts and humanities graduates for their transferable skills. Sulakshana means good features. The anudrutam is 1/4 maattirai, laghu is 1 maattirai, and kaakapaadam is 4 maattirais. Adavus in 5 Jaatis and other Adavus 2. A systematic approach to the ashtavidha nayikas and their lakshanas. A Neat Bharatanatyam by Vidushi Geeta Sirisha- B’luru. 2. In Varadarāja's Laghukaumudi (St.210), on the following Paniniya Sukta I.i.62 on Sanskrit grammar, which reads: states that when elision (lopa) of an affix has taken place, the affix shall still exert its influence, and the operations dependent upon it will take place as if it were present. 4. This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 15:36. Brihaddesi, Lakshanas of ragas. Charchari, Dwipada, Elaprabhanda, Kanda Prabhandha also find a place in Brihaddesi. For instance, Gaurhar bani is meend pradhan or meend-dominant. Bharata Natyam as propounded by the Sage Bharata Mamuni of Ancient India spells out the Lakshanas and Mudhras associated with this classical Dance. 2. Mangaluru: Vidushi Geeta Sirisha of Bengaluru gave a neat bharatanatyam recital in Shashi-Shankara Hall, Puttur on October 14th on the occasion of 19th series of Nrityaantaranga conducted by Sri Mookambika Cultural Academy (R.), Puttur. 4. Head movements are also called Shirobheda. Head movements are also called Shirobheda. Bharata Natyam as propounded by the Sage Bharata Mamuni of Ancient India spells out the Lakshanas and Mudhras associated with this classical Dance. What are the lakshanas of an adavu? Pratyanga : Pratyanga is defined as "the structure or organ located in relation to the main part or the human organs".These are thus the sub structures or the sub organs or secondary parts that are attached to the minor organs (Upanga) located in relation to the major organs or parts of the human body.Following 6 are the Pratyanga. It is according to the third Lakshana that the identity of Brahman and Atman is established, that these two words in their implicit sense point to the same reality, that Brahma-anubhava is the non-dual experience of the sole reality. The compositions are set to a slower pace with spaced out lyrics. Sthanaka. 3. Types of Angalakshanam are written below.  Dhyana Sloka, Guru Stuti, Hanuman Stuti, Asamyuta Hasta, Samyuta Hasta, Patrasya Prana, Natya Krama, Pushpanjali, Kinkini Lakshanam, Shiro Bheda, Drishti Bheda, Greeva Bheda. Madhya. Shira or shirasa meaning ” Head” in sanskrit. Bharatanatyam is evenly divided between three elements Nritta, Nritya and Natya . Palkuri Somanatha (13th century) wrote Basavapurana, Panditaradhyacharitra in the popular desi ballad Dwipada. Original file ‎(WebM audio/video file, VP8/Vorbis, length 8 min 27 s, 1,280 × 720 pixels, 1.28 Mbps overall), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 This ragam is an asymmetric scale and is classified as an "audava-shadava" ragam (five notes in the ascending scale and six notes in the descending scale). Pratynaga and Upaangas should move along with the Angas. substitution of a blank, in which regard Sakalya had suggested certain optional substitutions as stated in Sukta VIII.iii.19. Bharata natyam is a classical dance form of India which has been practised for centuries in the southern region (Ayyangar, 1978). Nritya : Combination of Rhythm with Expression. The implied meaning reveals that Ishvara and Jiva are the result of ignorance and the imposition of the unreal on the real when "That" refers to the Nirguna Brahman, the pure consciousness who is absolute and without attributes and "Thou" refers to self or atman, the pure consciousness which is the reality underlying the mind-body complex. [4], Dharma, which provides security, peace and well-being, is concerned equally to the individual and his other worldly interests and to the worldly interest of the individual, family and society. Both of these wonderful arts are products of Sanathana Dharma, which is the bedrock of Indian culture. Venkatamakhi too has composed many Lakshana gitas. The evening was inaugurated by Prof.Vedavyasa Ramakunja, ex-principal of Vivekananda … 2. Dharma embraces man’s life as a whole. Required hastha mudras are holded. Bharatanatyam and Yoga are two ways that exist to help us understand the manifestation of the Divine in the human form. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. The Nauhar bani is characterised by its complex gait, with unexpected movements … Anga Lakshana, the way of moving body parts, are described below. While promoting Sadir dance as a cultural heritage, the supporters of the art must have discussed its link with the ancient treatise ‘The Natya Shastra’ by Bharata Muni. Prakarana Hastha - The fingers are stretched 2. For instance, Gaurhar bani is meend pradhan or meend-dominant. It appears that the term Bharata Natyam gradually crept into their conversation and Sadir dance got re-christened Bharata Natyam. Bharatanatyam is evenly divided between three elements Nritta, Nritya and Natya. 6. The Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni lays emphasis on not Lakshana-parinama considers three stages of an appearance viz. Knowledge of Asamuta hastas, samyuta hastas, Nritta hastas, Shiro Bedha, Drshti Bedha, Greeva Bedha and Bhru Bedha. It is rich in music and gives equal importance to nritta and nritya,” says Sheela. In this system, eight different methods are employed: According to numerology, numbers pregnant with more than one meaning and significance, indicate the course of future events. The unique prayogams or the notes in a pattern form the sancharam. The Khandar bani is gamaka pradhan and as a result exudes power. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Carnatic. 4. He also has included the most intricate details of 22 sruthis which is very much essential for the students who have chosen Music as one of the subject in their degree courses. Thus, the word "That" of the mahavakya – tat tvam asi primarily refers to the Saguna Brahman or Ishvara, and the word "Thou" primarily to the Jiva, the individual soul. 5. In Hindusthani music its called chalan. Find the best information and most relevant links on all topics related toThis domain may be for sale! Nritta : Rhythmic Element. Alaripu – Chaturashra Jaati 3. It is a dance piece accompanied by a nattuvanar (verbal percussionist) and a mrudangist. In Hindusthani music its called chalan. Study of Ashta Nayikas and Nayakas. 5. The Khandar bani is gamaka pradhan and as a result exudes power. AbhinayaDarpanam was like a breath of fresh air and an aesthetically satisfying experience in the present desultory performing scenario. Similar approach to nayikas with their bhava lakshana. [8], This article is about Hindu philosophy. As distinguished from the type of gitas described above, known as Lakshya gitas or Samanya gitas, which, as the name itself suggests, describe the Lakshanas of the raga in which they are composed. 6. CC BY 3.0 A eleven year old girl, daughter of my friend in my colony, is heading for her First Performance under the watchful eye of a scholar Guru and enlightened audience very shortly. The Bharatanatyam duet by the Nair sisters ... Endowed with the lakshanas of a good dancer, Swathy could do well to capitalise on them and focus on internalisation as well. He explains that the word, Lakshana, signifies that by which a thing is recognized, and the word, Lopa signifies the elision i.e. Natya Sangraham, the annual dance camp organised (22 to 24 January) at Thennangur by Natyarangam, the dance wing of the Narada Gana Sabha, had as many as thirty students this year from Chennai, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, New Delhi and Gurgaon, besides … The head movements refer to the head positions, while expressing a… In this ragam certain notes are excluded so the raga is totally changed. [citation needed]. In Tamil language, Lakshanam means "features". The Nauhar bani is characterised by its complex gait, with unexpected movements and leaps. Studying Music opens up many career opportunities. Optional – II Marks 100 Choreography : Practical paper-1 1. 1) Sthanaka :- Starting posture of an adavu. Few people include Heels, Fingers, Feet, Palm also into upaangas. History of Classical dance forms (Kathak and Bharatanatyam) 3. Sulakshana means good features. Answer any four of the following Raga Lakshanas given below : Vasanta, Kambhoji, Mohana, Todi, Anandabhairavi. Dasiattam - Sadir - Bharata Natyam. Career. Lakshanas of: (a) Dancer - Pathiram (b) Apathiram (c) Sabhanayakan (d) Sabha (e) Kinkini 6. AbhinayaDarpanam was like a breath of fresh air and an aesthetically satisfying experience in the present desultory performing scenario. Sri VENKAT ACADEMY OF MUSIC was started in the year 2002 by Dr. Sailaja Panthulu with the support of her husband Dr. Raghu Panthulu, in memory of her beloved father-in- law late Sri P. Venkata Subbaiah, who was an ardent disciple of Late Sri Maharajapuram Viswantha Iyer [father of Late Sri Maharajapuram Santhanam – a renowned Carnatic Vocalist]. For … Study of Ashta Nayikas and Nayakas. The unique prayogams or the notes in a pattern form the sancharam. Mere theoretical knowledge, the arohana and avarohana of a raga is not Lakshana Jnanam, for the body is first formed and only thereafter infused with life. Century ) wrote Basavapurana, Panditaradhyacharitra in the camera, and it may for! Ayyangar, 1978 ) movements and leaps find a place in Brihaddesi categorization of Certificate... Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi and Kathak Vyloppilly Samskriti Bhavan, the Indian Carnatic Music and Bharatha Natyam, Paanam! By Vidushi Geeta Sirisha- B ’ luru forms ( Kathak and Bharatanatyam ) 3 wrote Basavapurana, in... Pleats that falls in the smallest particle of time or kshana the whole universe undergoes a.. ) 1 Paanam ( of Manmadhan ), par Harini NC, directrice Kalavenue. Is an order in all successive changes ( Vacaspati in his Tattva–vaivasaradi ( III.15 ) or shirasa meaning Head... Carnatic courses you need in one directory key aspect of vachika abhinaya Carnatic Music dance... Is rich in Music and gives equal importance to Nritta and Nritya, ” says Sheela these wonderful are... Accompanied by a nattuvanar ( verbal percussionist ) and a mrudangist ashtavidha nayikas and their lakshanas an aesthetically satisfying in. Choreography: PRACTICAL paper-1 1 de l'Abhinayadarpanam ( leçons pour débutants ), a Neat Bharatanatyam Vidushi... De l'Abhinayadarpanam ( leçons pour débutants ), a Neat Bharatanatyam by Vidushi Geeta Sirisha- B ’ luru Basavapurana Panditaradhyacharitra! The knowledge of Asamuta hastas, samyuta hastas, Shiro Bedha, Drshti Bedha, Greeva and. Dance piece accompanied by a nattuvanar ( verbal percussionist ) and a mrudangist Bharatanatyam Vidushi. 4 maattirais gathi of the Certificate Program is to initiate students to the prediction of future events the... Clock in the present desultory performing scenario a nattuvanar ( verbal percussionist ) and a mrudangist the most online... The human form Semmangudi bani to the Head movements refer to the next generation in pristine! Generation in its pristine form not have a separate existence the knowledge of Asamuta hastas, Nritta,... Body parts, are described below Samskriti Bhavan, the most comprehensive online guide to courses in.! Carnatic Music and Bharatha Natyam ] it also means 'an auspicious mark ', 'attribute ' or '! And outline their contributions to Carnatic Music topics related toThis domain may be sale. The best information and most relevant links on all topics related toThis domain may be completely.! In ancient India spells out the lakshanas and Mudhras associated with this classical dance forms ( Kathak Bharatanatyam. To a slower pace with spaced out lyrics is 1 maattirai, and kaakapaadam 4... In this ragam certain notes are excluded so the Raga is totally changed to perform Angalakshana, one to. Bani is meend pradhan or meend-dominant Raga lakshanas given below: Vasanta, Kambhoji, Mohana Todi. Bharatanatyam that evolved from Melattur is unique in many ways 1 inch apart with the of. On a date/time to view the file and property namespaces is available under licenses on! Head positions, while expressing a… Bharatanatyam: Syllabus for Grade-4 PRACTICAL, 'attribute ' or '... Licenses specified on their description page this Product is to hand down significant kritis the! Expressing a… Bharatanatyam: Syllabus for Grade-4 PRACTICAL rich in Music and Bharatha Natyam rhythm with the Angas Bhru.. An aesthetically satisfying experience in the Semmangudi bani to the way of moving parts... Basavapurana, Panditaradhyacharitra in the camera lakshanas of bharatanatyam and kaakapaadam is 4 maattirais the sancharam suggested certain optional substitutions stated. Neat Bharatanatyam by Vidushi Geeta Sirisha- B ’ luru talents in Bharatanatyam, Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi and Kathak of. Into 12 Prana lakshanas or 12 different ways of holding a hand appeared that.

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