The process involves pumping oxygen and steam through a small borehole into the coal seam to produce a small and controlled combustion. But coal is dirty to burn. • India has a coal reserve of 285 billion tonnes.80 % is non metallurgical (high ash content).out of this non-metallurgical coal India’s coal is largely dominated by inferior coal (80%), found in the depth of 300-1200 met. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The process involves pumping oxygen and steam through a small borehole into the coal seam to produce a small and controlled combustion. Has greater efficiency than conventional coal-burning because it can effectively use the gases twice: the coal gases are first cleansed of impurities and fired in a turbine to generate electricity. • 40 billion tonnes of lignite coal (most of which is found below 300 met).e.g Kalol basin. This will help in meeting the energy demands. Pyrolysis, the chemical decomposition of organic (carbon-based) materials through the application of heat.Pyrolysis, which is also the first step in gasification and combustion, occurs in the absence or near absence of oxygen, and it is thus distinct from combustion (burning), which can take place only if sufficient oxygen is present. • UCG is the only feasible technology, which enables exploitation of deep (> 700m) coal reserves, which are not amenable to known conventional mining methods. Coal liquefaction It is a process of converting coal … India has to test the process using its own coal for adaptation, design and power generation. Decision in this regard was taken by Union Cabinet Committee meeting chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. LTD is the parent company of CIVILSDAILY IAS. • Contamination of aquifer if not decommissioned properly. These products can be used for power generation and industrial processes. • ONGC drilled two pilot wells near Mehsana city, in North Gujarat. The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as … • The Ministry of Coal, Government of India, has awarded an S&T study project to the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as fertilizers. Coal gasification It is the process of producing syngas—a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, natural gas, and water vapour —from coal and water, air and/or oxygen. • Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process which converts coal into product gas (predominant product gases are methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). CIL, NLC, SCCL, GMDC and GIPCL. - Encouraging coal gasification is the way forward in judiciously using our coal resources in an environment-friendly manner. • UCG offers an environmentally clean way to harness energy from coal. With no committed supply assurance of Natural Gas, Syngas from Underground Coal Gasification can be an alternative as a feed stock. Coal gasification is carried out with limited amount of O2 which is around one-fifth to one-third of the theoretically O2 required for complete combustion. The usage of locally available coal for making fertilizers would help reduce the import of LNG. APEIROGON TECHNOLOGIES PVT. Unlike coal-bed methane, therefore, the actual coal is converted from a solid state into gas. The Union Cabinet has approved a policy framework for development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in unexplored coal and lignite bearing areas in the country. • Suitable coal deposit: Though technically feasible,number of sites geologically and hydrologically suitable are limited. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. • It will also strengthen “national policy on sustainable energy resource” through clean coal. Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. Top Quality GS Coaching. This was stated by Sh. But, ‘underground coal gasification’, can create 6,900 trillion cubic feet of gas which is way HIGHER than shale reserves. About: The auction process will be a two-stage tender process with technical and financial bidding. Coal Gasification Economics and Efficiency: A Comparison Study By David Fenton November 20th, 2006 Contents Purpose Conventional Basis Results IGCC Basis Results Comparisons Conclusions Purpose To compare conventional coal and IGCC power plants in the following aspects: Plant efficiency Pollution amounts Capital cost Operating cost Conventional Coal Basis 500 MW, … The decision is geared towards reducing India’s reliance on imports and helping the country meet its CoP-21 Paris Agreement commitments. Natural gas based methanol plants are of small size. Then, the exhaust heat from the gas turbine can be captured and used to generate steam for a steam turbine-generator. Coal liquefaction It is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. India is well positioned to take up UCG for extracting energy from isolated geographical locations. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). What is the INDIA’s potential in this field? Welcome to Sleepy Classes. India has 293 billion tonnes of coal lying under its soil. Oxygen and water is pumped in seam which decomposes coal in … With limited reserve potentiality of petroleum & natural gas, eco-conservation restriction on hydel project, improvement in technology for harnessing renewable energy and geo-political perception of nuclear power, it is becoming increasingly evident that coal will continue to occupy centre-stage of India’s energy scenario. • UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. • Coal in India is constrained by growing land acquisition problem and stringent environmental laws. Extraction is complicated because of environmental issues. This gives Methane, Hydrogen, Carbon monoxide by combination of Coal, Water and oxygen. The coal gasification process holds good potential in the future, with coal being the most abundantly available fossil fuel across the world, and that even low-grade coal can be used in the process. Historically, coal was gasified to produce coal gas, also known as "town gas". Additionally, it clarifies the assembling procedure, channels, and major downstream purchasers. • Possibilities of using CO2 from the gas for enhanced oil recovery exist. Unlike coal-bed methane, therefore, the actual coal is converted from a solid state into gas. Ƒ. A/C No: xxxxxxxxxx2695 • UCG overcomes hazards of underground and open cast mining operations. Commercial coal mining. H2 and CO are the main products of gasification. Coal has better absorption capacity of CO2 and it will result in more desorption of CBM. Recently Odisha’s Talcher fertilizer plant was awarded a contract for starting a coal gasification unit for the production of urea and Ammonia. 1B, Second Floor,Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. It produces Syngas which is a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen … CH4 and CO2 are the other two major products and their content goes up with increasing pressure and H2+CO content going down. exist. 8) The project’s environment-friendliness would help India in meeting its commitments under the CoP-21 Paris Agreement. • Environmental concern: As many of the coal blocks are in ecologically sensitive areas,environment safety is a concern. Details: The commercialisation of coal mining was announced in tranche 4 of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. Context: Government of India to launch auction for commercial coal mining on 18 th June 2020.. 8) GK Articles, News, Current Affairs, Trivia Questions and Updates about Underground Coal Gasification for students and aspirants of UPSC, Civil services and other competitive examinations. The Government of India plans to push coal gasification technology. Urea is currently produced using pooled natural gas, which comprises of both domestic natural gas and imported LNG. Syngas from UCG can be used as a feed stock for CTL for production of clean synthetic liquid fuels using Fischer Tropsch process. • In current practice, large-scale instances of coal gasification are primarily for electricity generation, for production of chemical feedstocks, or for production of synthetic natural gas. The Ministry of Environment along with the Wildlife Conservation Society, India, has come up with a unique initiative — a “firefly bird diverter” for overhead power lines in areas where Great Indian Bustard (GIB) populations are found in the wild. 2. • Methane or natural gas extracted from coal gasification can be converted into LNG for direct use as fuel in transport sector. • Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process which converts coal into product gas (predominant product gases are methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) • UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. Underground coal gasification (UCG) involves the unmined coal seams that are reacted underground, with insufficient oxygen for complete combustion, to create syngas. The coal and mining secretary also said that production of minerals despite huge potential has not yet reached the desired level. The hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and CO2 are then siphoned off through a second borehole. • Gas output may be combusted for electricity production. The hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and CO2 are then siphoned off through a second borehole. The construction has already started in 3 washeries. FREE. • ONGC has taken Skochinsky Institute of Mining, Russia, and world’s foremost leaders in UCG Technology, as its technical collaborator. Case study: cougar energy plant Queensland (Australia) exploded and subsequently benzene was found in ground water. As part of the relief measures in the aftermath of COVID-19, the Prime Minister announced a special economic package and gave a clarion call for “Atmanirbhar Bharat” or … Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan (Self-reliant India Mission) is a campaign launched by the Central Government of India which included an Rs.20 lakh crore economic stimulus package and a number of reform proposals. Types of Coal and their properties: Bituminous, Lignite, Anthracite and peat coal reserve in India Problems of Indian coal Under-ground coal gasification: features and benefits. From UPSC perspective, the following things are important : Mains level : Benefits of Coal Gasification. 2020 Best Mock Test... RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims 2020-21 Course: GRASP IAS is the... 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