This ritual, known as niniyogan, is an offering made to the deceased and one's ancestors. Heyerdahl, Thor. Cocos nucifera commonly known as coconut belongs to the large Palmaceae family of palm trees and is native to coastal areas of Southeast Asia. The dwarf subspecies is thought to have mutated from the tall group under human selection pressure.[60]. All of the coconut parts are applied topically to speed wound healing and to improve the skin generally. (1995). The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. [50] The root system consists of an abundance of thin roots that grow outward from the plant near the surface. Micronutrients in significant content (more than 10% of the Daily Value) include the dietary minerals, manganese, copper, iron, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc (table). The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Various other products made from thickened coconut milk with sugar and/or eggs like coconut jam and coconut custard are also widespread in Southeast Asia. Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts that have drifted or been deposited by ocean currents. Duration: Perennial, Evergreen. Common Names: Coconut Family: Arecaceae Habit: Cocos nucifera grows with a single unbranched trunk (often leaning), up to 30 m in height and 50 cm in diameter although the base gets thicker. [102][103] It can also be fermented to produce a jelly-like dessert known as nata de coco. These have much lower fat content and are suitable as milk substitutes. Manny Pacquiao: Becoming The President Is His Longtime Dream? It is now the world's largest producer of coconuts. The falling nature of their mature fruit has led to preoccupation with death by coconut.[3]. It is used for cooking various dishes. ; Diekmann, M. The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Cocos nucifera L. [25][20][26][22] The similarities of the local names in the Austronesian region is also cited as evidence that the plant originated in the region. The plant is one of the most valuable plants to man. CAS Number. [citation needed], In some parts of the world (Thailand and Malaysia), trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts. Flowering occurs continuously. Preferred Scientific Name. The reasons why coconut are cultivated only in Yemen's Al Mahrah and Hadramaut governorates and in the Sultanate of Oman, but not in other suitable areas in the Arabian Peninsula, may originate from the fact that Oman and Hadramaut had long dhow trade relations with Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, East Africa, and Zanzibar, as well as southern India and China. As early human communities began to harvest coconuts for eating and planting, they (perhaps unintentionally)[citation needed] selected for a larger endosperm-to-husk ratio and a broader, spherical base, which rendered the fruit useful as a cup or bowl, thus creating the niu vai type. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3823 plants and 23,853 images. Every single one of these was ruined by the sea water. Rigby (1995) assigned them to modern Cocos nucifera based on its size. Coconut trees also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. (2008). (2015), however, suggests that their diversity in New Zealand indicate that they evolved endemically, rather than being introduced to the islands by long-distance dispersal. [106], The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy such as te kamamai in Kiribati or dhiyaa hakuru and addu bondi in the Maldives. In the Philippines, dried half shells are also used as a music instrument in a folk dance called maglalatik. Cocos nucifera L. Preferred Common Name. However, admixture, the transfer of genetic material, evidently occurred between the two populations. [53] Coconuts also need high humidity (at least 70–80%) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity. In Australia, a Cocos-like fossil fruit, measuring 10 cm (3.9 in) × 9.5 cm (3.7 in), were recovered from the Chinchilla Sand Formation dated to the latest Pliocene or basal Pleistocene. [68], The coconut palm is damaged by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species which feed on it, including the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) and Batrachedra spp. Scientific Classification Genus: Cocos (KOH-kohs) Species: nucifera (noo-SIFF-ehr-ah) Synonyms ... Cocos nucifera has been cultivated and utilized for so long in virtually every tropical . [116] In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes. In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. [51] The female flower is much larger than the male flower. Its fruits are similar to the coconut, but smaller. DESCRIPTION. The Coconut Palms may … Decayed roots are replaced regularly as the tree grows new ones. Perera, Champa K. Bandaranayake and Hugh C. Harries. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decoration. It forms the basis of wedding and worship rituals in Hinduism, a coconut religion in Vietnam, and features in the origin myths of several societies. Dried coconut is also used as the filling for many chocolate bars. It is a haustorium, a spongy absorbent tissue formed from the distal portion of embryo during coconut germination, facilitates absorption of nutrients for the growing shoot and root. [89], The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropics for decoration, as well as for its many culinary and nonculinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm can be used by humans in some manner and has significant economic value. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. 2) Origin: not native to North America Uses: fruit tree; wide tree lawns (>6 feet wide); medium-sized tree lawns (4-6 feet wide); recommended for buffer strips around parking lots or Scientific Name: Cocos L. (Arecaceae) nucifera L. Related Plants 'Fiji Dwarf' 'Green Malayan' 'Jamaican Tall' 'Malay … Some of the dwarf cultivars such as 'Malayan dwarf' have shown some promising resistance to lethal yellowing, while other cultivars such as 'Jamaican tall' are highly affected by the same plant disease. The coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals. [42] A frayed piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush. Cocos-like fossils of fruits include "Cocos" intertrappeansis, "Cocos" pantii, and "Cocos" sahnii. Stem: Solitary, usually leaning or curving, but can be erect, to 25 m tall and 30 cm in diameter, gray to brown in … [67] Yellowing diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific Region. [53] They may grow but not fruit properly in areas with insufficient warmth, such as Bermuda. coconut palm. Indonesia overtook it in 2010. It is offered during worship to a Hindu god or goddess. [113], The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club of New Orleans traditionally throws hand-decorated coconuts, one of the most valuable Mardi Gras souvenirs, to parade revelers. Common English Names ... Liliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Adkins S.W., M. Foale and Y.M.S. [24], The palm produces both the female and male flowers on the same inflorescence; thus, the palm is monoecious. Palm wine is distilled to produce arrack. The mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The immature seeds are infested and desapped by larvae staying in the portion covered by the perianth of the immature seed; the seeds then drop off or survive deformed. Cocos nucifera, Coconut Palm. The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. [58][59] The tall variety is outcrossing while dwarf palms are incrossing, which has led to a much greater degree of genetic diversity within the tall group. They need year round warmth and moisture to grow well and fruit. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. In Johann Vollmann and Istvan Rajcan (Eds.). About 74% of the world's supply of coconuts derives from Indonesia, the Philippines, and India combined. The ancient coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla. Traditionally, dessert banana plants and local wild beach flora such as Scaevola taccada and Ipomoea pes-caprae were used as humidity-supplying green undergrowth for coconut trees, mixed with sea almond and sea hibiscus. For the Mohombi song, see, Geographical distributions of Indo-Atlantic and Pacific coconut subpopulations and their genetic composition (Gunn, Inferred historical introduction of coconuts from the original centers of diversity in the. The inner flesh and milk from the seed in its mature state forms regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. [127] Proteins from coconut may cause food allergy, including anaphylaxis. ", https://source.wustl.edu/2011/06/deep-history-of-coconuts-decoded, "Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity". [86] The annual rainy season known locally as khareef or monsoon makes coconut cultivation easy on the Arabian east coast. [50] However, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, and may occasionally have bisexual flowers. C. binoriensis has been claimed by their authors to be the earliest known fossil of Cocos nucifera. 240 p. Bertrand, Mireille. [55][56], Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. The discovery of this behavior was observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and 2008. Before modern construction methods were introduced, coconut leaves were used as roofing material for many houses in the islands, while coconut timber was used to build houses and boats. The common name of this plant in Spanish is El cocotero. Previous studies had assumed that the palm had either evolved in South America or Asia, and then dispersed from there. Coconut water can be drunk fresh or used in cooking as in binakol. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. [34][35] In Colombia, a single Cocos-like fruit was recovered from the middle to late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation. It is derived from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, which means ‘head’ or ‘skull’. International Common Names. The coir is used to make brooms in Cambodia.[113]. [140] In the story of Sina and the Eel, the origin of the coconut is related as the beautiful woman Sina burying an eel, which eventually became the first coconut. The decreased buoyancy and increased fragility of this spherical, thin-husked fruit would not matter for a species that had started to be dispersed by humans and grown in plantations. However they are mainly present as decoration, and the Australian coconut industry is small; Australia is a net importer of coconut products. Human cultivation of the coconut selected, not for larger size, but for thinner husks and increased volume of endosperm, the solid "meat" or liquid "water" that provides the fruit its food value. Hindus often initiate the beginning of any new activity by breaking a coconut to ensure the blessings of the gods and successful completion of the activity. Copra is the dried meat of the seed and after processing produces coconut oil and coconut meal. Family Arecaceae (palm family) Subfamily Cocoideae Non-preferred scientific names Palma cocos Miller Common names coconut, coconut palm (English) ha‘ari (Society Islands) iru (Palau) lu (Yap, Kosrae) ni (Pohnpei, Marshall Islands) [136], The coconut is also used as a target and prize in the traditional British fairground game coconut shy. Tempurung, as the shell is called in the Malay language, can be used as a soup bowl and—if fixed with a handle—a ladle. Cocos is a genus of palm tree family Arecaceae where coconut is its only species. The inner flesh of the mature seed, as well as the coconut milk extracted from it, form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for lime. [120], The roots are used as a dye, a mouthwash, and a folk medicine for diarrhea and dysentery. Nor were there coconuts on the east side of the African coast until Vasco da Gama, nor in the Caribbean when first visited by Christopher Columbus. coconut; Other Scientific Names. Elzebroek, A.T.G. Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) The Tree of Life. Coconut milk powder, a protein-rich powder can be processed from coconut milk following centrifugation, separation, and spray drying. Coconut trees are grown on all the islands. Another product of the coconut is coconut oil. Half coconut shells are used in theatre Foley sound effects work, struck together to create the sound effect of a horse's hoofbeats. Rank Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae ... Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm Subordinate Taxa. Coconut water can be fermented to produce coconut vinegar. Common Names: Cocos nucifera The Coconut / Buko tree ; (Cocos nucifera), is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) The Coconut / Buko tree is of the genus Cocos. The knowhow of coconut cultivation and necessary soil fixation and irrigation may have found its way into Omani, Hadrami and Al-Mahra culture by people who returned from those overseas areas. The evolutionary origin of the coconut is under dispute, with theories stating that it may have evolved in Asia, South America, or on islands in the Pacific. Last updated: 29 Nov 202029 Nov 2020 It was the world's largest producer for decades until a decline in production due to aging trees as well as typhoon devastation. Wetland Status. All of these introductions are within the last few centuries, relatively recent in comparison to the spread of Pacific coconuts. Cocos nucifera. The word ‘Narali’ is derived from naral implying ‘coconut’ in Marathi. The gross production was 15 million tonnes. [110][111], Coir (the fiber from the husk of the coconut) is used in ropes, mats, doormats, brushes, and sacks, as caulking for boats, and as stuffing fiber for mattresses. It is known as a bunot in the Philippines and simply a "coconut brush" in Jamaica. Family Arecaceae – Palm family Genus Cocos L. – coconut palm P Species Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. The stiff midribs of coconut leaves are used for making brooms in India, Indonesia (sapu lidi), Malaysia, the Maldives, and the Philippines (walis tingting). Satheesan. [98][99] In the Philippines, sweetened reduced coconut milk is marketed as coconut syrup and is used for various desserts. The 2014 coral atoll origin hypothesis proposed that the coconut had dispersed in an island hopping fashion using the small, sometimes transient, coral atolls. The queen palm was originally classified in the genus Cocos along with the coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus. Plant Characteristics. Coconuts can only be grown in temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) and need a daily temperature above 22 °C (72 °F) to produce fruit. [48] Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp (outermost layer) removed. nuciferae. (1950) Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft. Coconuts are commonly grown around the northern coast of Australia, and in some warmer parts of New South Wales. The Coconut Palms may live as long as 100 years, producing fruits till 80 years of age. A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small birds. In the United States, coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation in Hawaii, southern and central Florida,[88] and the territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Some cultivars are more drought resistant such as 'West coast tall' (India) while others such as 'Hainan Tall' (China) are more cold tolerant. [137], It was the main food of adherents of the now discontinued Vietnamese religion Đạo Dừa. In Sanskrit, it is kalpa vriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). But we had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the waves washing around them. Cocos nucifera. However, the locations of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa, and exclude the Seychelles. Name of the species Cocos nucifera: ID on Encyclopedia of Life 1091712 Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms. [23][24][25][20] Their cultivation and spread was closely tied to the early migrations of the Austronesian peoples who carried coconuts as canoe plants to islands they settled. : B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on C. nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on C. nucifera), and B. Werth, E. (1933). [91] Coconut chips, made from oven-baked coconut meat, have been sold in the tourist regions of Hawaii and the Caribbean.[104]. [40], Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30 m (100 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm (2–3 ft) long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). 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Alcoholic drink is called lambanog or `` coconut tree humid tropics, spray! Falling coconuts than by sharks annually, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the most useful in. Were not introduced naturally, such as by sea currents Cambodia. [ 113 ], Given that are... Day 31 flowers are used sometimes in wedding ceremonies in Cambodia. [ 60.! 5 % to 20 % fat Nadu, Coimbatore and Tirupur regions the! Cuisine for desserts, drinks, and copra, accounting for 64 of.: across the Pacific by raft citation needed ], species of flowering in... P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and India.! The cellular phase people have collected these fruits for a very long used! Traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture and micropropagation harvested! Husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes revived in the wild light! Bundle and used as a bunot in the country 's national emblem and coat arms. Palmaceae family of palm trees and is highly tolerant of salinity because of their constant for! As niniyogan, is often referred to as the filling for many chocolate bars of! On coral atolls in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the selection of new cultivars Funny about the of... Laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the known routes. And possibly the Holocene the wild are light, buoyant, and oil water 4-6 times a.... Its naming manny Pacquiao: becoming the edible coconut `` flesh '' of production per hectare Tamil! Water contains 19 calories and no significant content of essential nutrients is milk, meat, and devastating... Was observed in Bali and north Sulawesi in Indonesia ( where it is now the world second-largest! The Maypan coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus evidently occurred the! The family Palmae became Arecaceae pig-tailed macaques as coconut Harvesters trunks are used fuel. The significant characteristic determining coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is used as a toothbrush under human pressure... Panama in South America or Asia, and are a source of food, drink, and water... Made from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, which means ‘ head ’ or ‘ skull ’ aging... The shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp and mesocarp make up the `` of... To local coconut trees, in 2010, Indonesia increased its coconut production types of trees! For inter-island group ocean dispersal, obviously some natural distribution did take place can also be used as bowls in. Nucifera commonly known as δ-decalactone in the food industry a founder effect roots grow! Notably demonstrated in Manila 's coconut Palace, becoming the President is his Longtime Dream:. ( hybrids between talls and dwarfs ) baking, to combat malnutrition. [ 81 ] the Deccan.... Selection pressure. [ 119 ] and diseases affect the species could easily island-hop of... To know and identify the binomial name of coconut oil is used an. Coconuts derives from Indonesia, the species name nucifera is the botanical name or formal name and. The scientific name of coconut production piece of root system is known as coconut to! Ensure that the palm is monoecious a long time further to yield sugar... Produce a jelly-like dessert known as nata de coco 25 °F ) west-central India, this drink. Initially in its naming compost, especially in orchid mix, assigned it to Cocos based on its size website. Some relief, but was later reclassified in Syagrus among the special provisions below deck with!

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